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    18 USC Sec. 1589                                            01/05/2009




    Sec. 1589. Forced labor


      (a) Whoever knowingly provides or obtains the labor or services
    of a person by any one of, or by any combination of, the following
    means -
        (1) by means of force, threats of force, physical restraint, or
      threats of physical restraint to that person or another person;
        (2) by means of serious harm or threats of serious harm to that
      person or another person;
        (3) by means of the abuse or threatened abuse of law or legal
      process; or
        (4) by means of any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause
      the person to believe that, if that person did not perform such
      labor or services, that person or another person would suffer
      serious harm or physical restraint,
    shall be punished as provided under subsection (d).
      (b) Whoever knowingly benefits, financially or by receiving
    anything of value, from participation in a venture which has
    engaged in the providing or obtaining of labor or services by any
    of the means described in subsection (a), knowing or in reckless
    disregard of the fact that the venture has engaged in the providing
    or obtaining of labor or services by any of such means, shall be
    punished as provided in subsection (d).
      (c) In this section:
        (1) The term "abuse or threatened abuse of law or legal
      process" means the use or threatened use of a law or legal
      process, whether administrative, civil, or criminal, in any
      manner or for any purpose for which the law was not designed, in
      order to exert pressure on another person to cause that person to
      take some action or refrain from taking some action.
        (2) The term "serious harm" means any harm, whether physical or
      nonphysical, including psychological, financial, or reputational
      harm, that is sufficiently serious, under all the surrounding
      circumstances, to compel a reasonable person of the same
      background and in the same circumstances to perform or to
      continue performing labor or services in order to avoid incurring
      that harm.
      (d) Whoever violates this section shall be fined under this
    title, imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both. If death results
    from a violation of this section, or if the violation includes
    kidnaping, an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse, or an
    attempt to kill, the defendant shall be fined under this title,
    imprisoned for any term of years or life, or both.


    (Added Pub. L. 106-386, div. A, Sec. 112(a)(2), Oct. 28, 2000, 114
    Stat. 1486; amended Pub. L. 110-457, title II, Sec. 222(b)(3), Dec.
    23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5068.)


      2008 - Pub. L. 110-457 amended section generally. Prior to
    amendment, section provided penalties for knowingly providing or
    obtaining forced labor.
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