Published Oct 19, 2023
Former Attorney General Loretta E. Lynch appointed Maria Lurye to begin hearing cases in April 2017. Judge Lurye earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 2001 from Rutgers University–New Brunswick and a Juris Doctor in 2007 from the Rutgers School of Law–Newark. From 2008 to January 2017, she served as an assistant chief counsel for the Office of the Chief Counsel, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Department of Homeland Security in New York, N.Y. She was previously an associate attorney with the Kuba Law Firm in New York City. Judge Lurye is a member of the New Jersey and New York State Bars.
Detailed data on decisions by Judge Lurye were examined for the period covering fiscal years 2018 through 2023. During this period, court records show that Judge Lurye decided 1103 asylum claims on their merits. Of these, she granted asylum for 882, granted 5 other types of relief, and denied relief to 216. Converted to percentage terms, Lurye denied 19.6 percent and granted 80.5 percent of asylum cases (including forms of relief other than asylum).
Figure 1 provides a comparison of Judge Lurye's denial rate each fiscal year over this recent period. (Rates for years with less than 25 decisions are not shown.)
Compared to Judge Lurye's denial rate of 19.6 percent, Immigration Court judges across the country denied 60.6 percent of asylum claims during this same period. Judges at the New York Immigration Court where Judge Lurye decided these cases denied asylum 34.4 percent of the time. See Figure 2.
Judge Lurye's asylum grant and denial rates are compared with other judges serving on the same court in this table. Note that when an Immigration Judge serves on more than one court during the same period, separate Immigration Judge reports are created for any Court in which the judge rendered at least 100 asylum decisions.
Although denial rates are shaped by each Judge's judicial philosophy, denial rates are also shaped by other factors, such as the types of cases on the Judge's docket, the detained status of immigrant respondents, current immigration policies, and other factors beyond an individual Judge's control. For example, TRAC has previously found that legal representation and the nationality of the asylum seeker are just two factors that appear to impact asylum decision outcomes.
The composition of cases may differ significantly between Immigration Courts in the country. Within a single Court when cases are randomly assigned to judges sitting on that Court, each Judge should have roughly a similar composition of cases given a sufficient number of asylum cases. Then variations in asylum decisions among Judges on the same Immigration Court would appear to reflect, at least in part, the judicial philosophy that the Judge brings to the bench. However, if judges within a Court are assigned to specialized dockets or hearing locations, then case compositions are likely to continue to differ and can contribute to differences in asylum denial rates.
When asylum seekers are not represented by an attorney, almost all of them (80%) are denied asylum. In contrast, a significantly higher proportion of represented asylum seekers are successful. In the case of Judge Lurye, 2.1% were not represented by an attorney. See Figure 3. For the nation as a whole, about 15.7% of asylum seekers are not represented.
Asylum seekers are a diverse group. Over one hundred different nationalities had at least one hundred individuals claiming asylum decided during this period. As might be expected, immigration courts located in different parts of the country tend to have proportionately larger shares from some countries than from others. And, given the required legal grounds for a successful asylum claim, asylum seekers from some nations tend to be more successful than others.
The largest group of asylum seekers appearing before Judge Lurye came from China. Individuals from this country made up 36.8% of her caseload. Other nationalities in descending order of frequency appearing before Judge Lurye were: India (10.0%), El Salvador (9.1%), Honduras (7.9%), Bangladesh (5.2%). See Figure 4.
In the nation as a whole during this same period, major nationalities of asylum seekers, in descending order of frequency, were El Salvador (16.6%), Guatemala (15.1%), Honduras (13.8%), Mexico (9.2%), China (6.8%), India (5.1%), Venezuela (3.2%), Ecuador (3.1%), Cuba (2.4%), Nicaragua (2.3%), Brazil (2.0%), Colombia (1.4%), Cameroon (1.4%).