Published Oct 19, 2023
Judge Ipema was appointed as an Immigration Judge in September 1995. Prior to his appointment as an Immigration Judge in the San Diego Immigration Court in December 2004, Judge Ipema served as an Immigration Judge in the Los Angeles Immigration Court from September 1995 to December 2004. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Calvin College in 1982, and a Juris Doctorate from Georgetown University Law Center in 1987. From 1988 to 1995, Judge Ipema served as a staff attorney for the Board of Immigration Appeals in Falls Church, Virginia. From 1987 to 1988, he worked as a law clerk in the Chicago Immigration Court. In 1987, he joined the Executive Office for Immigration Review, Falls Church, Virginia, also serving as a law clerk. Judge Ipema is a member of the Illinois Bar.
Detailed data on decisions by Judge Ipema were examined for the period covering fiscal years 2018 through 2023. During this period, court records show that Judge Ipema decided 211 asylum claims on their merits. Of these, he granted asylum for 41, granted 1 other types of relief, and denied relief to 169. Converted to percentage terms, Ipema denied 80.1 percent and granted 19.9 percent of asylum cases (including forms of relief other than asylum).
Figure 1 provides a comparison of Judge Ipema's denial rate each fiscal year over this recent period. (Rates for years with less than 25 decisions are not shown.)
Compared to Judge Ipema's denial rate of 80.1 percent, Immigration Court judges across the country denied 60.6 percent of asylum claims during this same period. Judges at the San Diego Immigration Court where Judge Ipema decided these cases denied asylum 73.4 percent of the time. See Figure 2.
Judge Ipema's asylum grant and denial rates are compared with other judges serving on the same court in this table. Note that when an Immigration Judge serves on more than one court during the same period, separate Immigration Judge reports are created for any Court in which the judge rendered at least 100 asylum decisions.
Although denial rates are shaped by each Judge's judicial philosophy, denial rates are also shaped by other factors, such as the types of cases on the Judge's docket, the detained status of immigrant respondents, current immigration policies, and other factors beyond an individual Judge's control. For example, TRAC has previously found that legal representation and the nationality of the asylum seeker are just two factors that appear to impact asylum decision outcomes.
The composition of cases may differ significantly between Immigration Courts in the country. Within a single Court when cases are randomly assigned to judges sitting on that Court, each Judge should have roughly a similar composition of cases given a sufficient number of asylum cases. Then variations in asylum decisions among Judges on the same Immigration Court would appear to reflect, at least in part, the judicial philosophy that the Judge brings to the bench. However, if judges within a Court are assigned to specialized dockets or hearing locations, then case compositions are likely to continue to differ and can contribute to differences in asylum denial rates.
When asylum seekers are not represented by an attorney, almost all of them (80%) are denied asylum. In contrast, a significantly higher proportion of represented asylum seekers are successful. In the case of Judge Ipema, 16.1% were not represented by an attorney. See Figure 3. For the nation as a whole, about 15.7% of asylum seekers are not represented.
Asylum seekers are a diverse group. Over one hundred different nationalities had at least one hundred individuals claiming asylum decided during this period. As might be expected, immigration courts located in different parts of the country tend to have proportionately larger shares from some countries than from others. And, given the required legal grounds for a successful asylum claim, asylum seekers from some nations tend to be more successful than others.
The largest group of asylum seekers appearing before Judge Ipema came from Guatemala. Individuals from this country made up 37.4% of his caseload. Other nationalities in descending order of frequency appearing before Judge Ipema were: Mexico (36.0%), Nigeria (5.7%), Haiti (4.3%), Iraq (3.8%). See Figure 4.
In the nation as a whole during this same period, major nationalities of asylum seekers, in descending order of frequency, were El Salvador (16.6%), Guatemala (15.1%), Honduras (13.8%), Mexico (9.2%), China (6.8%), India (5.1%), Venezuela (3.2%), Ecuador (3.1%), Cuba (2.4%), Nicaragua (2.3%), Brazil (2.0%), Colombia (1.4%), Cameroon (1.4%).