Percent Change from 5 years ago (Including Magistrate Court)
Percent Change from 5 years ago (Excluding Magistrate Court)
Table 1. Criminal White Collar Crime Prosecutions
The latest available data from the Justice Department show that during May 2019 the government reported 443 new white collar crime prosecutions.
According to the case-by-case information analyzed by the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC), this number is down 10 percent over the previous month.
White Collar Crime
This report summarizes the government's recent efforts when it comes to combating white
collar crime — the number of such cases, the investigative agencies involved, the laws cited, the
busiest federal districts and the busiest federal judges.
The comparisons of the number of defendants charged with white collar crime-related offenses are based on case-by-case information obtained by TRAC under the Freedom of Information Act from the Executive Office for United States Attorneys (see Table 1).
When monthly 2019 prosecutions of this type are compared with those of the same period in
the previous year, the number of filings was down (-7.9%).
Prosecutions over the past year are still much lower than they were five years ago.
Overall, the data show that prosecutions of this type are down 34.3 percent from levels reported in 2014.
The decrease from the levels five years ago in white collar crime prosecutions for these matters is shown more clearly in Figure 1.
The vertical bars in Figure 1
represent the number of white collar crime prosecutions of this type recorded on a month-to-month
basis. Where a prosecution was initially filed in U.S. Magistrate Court and then transferred to the U.S. District Court,
the magistrate filing date was used since this provides an earlier indicator of actual trends.
The superimposed line on the bars plots the six-month moving average so
that natural fluctuations are smoothed out. The one and five-year rates of change in Table 1 and in the sections that follow are all based upon this six-month moving average. To view trends year-by-year rather than month-by-month, see TRAC's annual report series for a broader picture.
Figure 1. Monthly Trends in White Collar Crime Prosecutions
Within the broad category of white collar crime, cases were classified by prosecutors into more specific types.
Antitrust Violations - Extraterritorial Application Of
Antitrust Violations - Finance Markets, Other than Banking
Aggravated Identity Theft
Other White Collar Crime/Fraud
The largest number of prosecutions of these matters in May 2019 was for "Fraud-Other", accounting for 18.7 percent of prosecutions. Prosecutions were also filed for "Fraud-Financial Institution" (12.2%), "Fraud-Health Care" (12.2%), "Fraud-Identity Theft-Aggravated" (10.4%), "Fraud-Federal Program" (8.8%), "Fraud-Securities" (7.2%), "Fraud-Tax" (7%), "Fraud-Identity Theft-Other" (6.5%), "Fraud-Other Business" (4.3%), "Fraud-Computer" (3.2%), "Fraud-Consumer" (2.3%), "Fraud-Federal Procurement" (2%).
See Figure 2.
The lead investigative agency for white collar crime prosecutions in May 2019
was FBI accounting for 34 percent of prosecutions referred.
Other agencies with substantial numbers of white collar crime referrals were:
DHS (12% ), Postal (10%), SecServ (8%), IRS (8%).
See Figure 3.
Figure 2. Specific Types of Prosecutions
Figure 3. Prosecutions by Investigative Agency
White Collar Crime Prosecutions in U.S. Magistrate Courts
Top Ranked Lead Charges
In May 2019, 69 defendants in white collar crime cases for these matters were filed in U.S. Magistrate Courts.
These courts handle less serious
misdemeanor cases, including what are called "petty offenses." In
addition, complaints are sometimes filed in the magistrate courts before
an indictment or information is entered. In these cases, the matter
starts in the magistrate courts and later moves to the district court
where subsequent proceedings take place.
In the magistrate courts in May the most frequently cited lead charge was
Title 18 U.S.C Section 1028 involving "Aggravated Identity Theft". This was the lead charge
for 27.5 percent of all magistrate filings in May.
Other frequently prosecuted lead charges include: "18 USC 1343 - Fraud by wire, radio, or television" (15.9%), "18 USC 1344 - Bank Fraud" (13%), "18 USC 1029 - Fraud and related activity - access devices" (11.6%), "18 USC 1341 - Mail Fraud - Frauds and swindles" (7.2%).
White Collar Crime Prosecutions in U.S. District Courts
In May 2019, 374 defendants in new cases
for these matters were charged in the U.S. District Courts. In addition during May there
were an additional 32 defendants whose cases moved from the magistrate
courts to the U.S. district courts after an indictment or information
was filed. The sections which follow cover both sets of cases and
therefore cover all matters filed in district court during May.
Top Ranked Lead Charges
Table 2 shows the top lead charges recorded in the prosecutions of white collar crime matters
filed in U.S. District Court during May 2019.
"Fraud by wire, radio, or television" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1343) was the most frequent recorded lead charge.
"Fraud by wire, radio, or television" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1343) was ranked 1 a year ago, while it was ranked 1 five years ago.
Ranked 2nd in frequency was the lead charge "Mail Fraud - Attempt and Conspiracy" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1349.
"Mail Fraud - Attempt and Conspiracy" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1349 was ranked 2 a year ago, while it was ranked 2 five years ago.
Ranked 3rd was "Bank Fraud" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1344.
"Bank Fraud" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1344 was ranked 3 a year ago, while it was ranked 3 five years ago.
Among these top ten lead charges, the one showing the greatest
increase in prosecutions — up 31.6 percent — compared to one year ago was Title 21 U.S.C Section 841
that involves " Drug Abuse Prevention & Control-Prohibited acts A ".
This was the same statute that had the largest increase — 316.7 % — when compared with five years ago.
Again among the top ten lead charges, the one showing the sharpest
decline in prosecutions compared to one year ago — down 22.7 percent — was
" Mail Fraud - Frauds and swindles " (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1341 ).
Compared to five years ago, the most significant decline in prosecutions — 59.2 percent — was
for filings where the lead charge was " Fraud and related activity - id documents " (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1028 ).
Top Ranked Judicial Districts
In May 2019 the Justice Department's case-by-case records show that the government brought 149.6 white collar crime prosecutions for every ten million people in the United States.
Understandably, there is great variation in the per capita number of white collar crime prosecutions that are filed in each of the nation's ninety-four federal judicial districts.
The districts registering the
largest number of prosecutions per capita for these matters last month are shown in Table 3.
Districts must have at least 5 white collar crime prosecutions to receive a ranking.
Table 3. Top 10 Districts (per ten million people)
The Southern District of Florida (Miami) — with 533 prosecutions as compared with 149.6 prosecutions per ten million population in the United States — was the most active during May 2019.
The Southern District of Florida (Miami) was ranked 1 a year ago, while it was ranked 1 for most frequent use five years ago.
The Middle District of North Carolina (Greensboro) ranked 2nd.
Southern District of New York (Manhattan) is now ranking 3rd.
The Southern District of New York (Manhattan) was ranked 2 a year ago, while it was ranked 2 for most frequent use five years ago.
Recent entrants to the top 10 list were
South Carolina , now ranked
, and Middle District of North Carolina (Greensboro)
In the same order, these districts ranked 13th and 29th one year ago and 20th and 49th five years ago.
The federal judicial district which showed the greatest growth
in the rate of white collar crime prosecutions compared to one year ago — 111.1 percent — was
Middle District of Tennessee (Nashville).
Compared to five years ago, the district with the largest growth — 100 percent — was
Western District of Kentucky (Louisville).
In the last year, the judicial District Court recording the
largest drop in the rate of white collar crime prosecutions — 30.8 percent — was
Southern District of New York (Manhattan).
But over the past five years,
Middle District of Tennessee (Nashville)
showed the largest drop — 38.7 percent.
Top Ranked District Judges
At any one time, there are about 680 federal District Court judges working in the United States. The judges recorded with the largest number of new white collar crime crime cases of this type during May 2019 are shown in Table 4.
A total of 5 out of the "top ten" judges were in districts which were in the top ten with the largest number of white collar crime filings per capita, while the remaining 8 judges were from other districts. (Because of ties, there were a total of 13 judges in the "top ten" rankings.)
Judges Robert B. Kugler in the District of New Jersey and Larry R. Hicks in the District of Nevada ranked 1st with 7 defendants in white collar crime cases.
Judge Cecilia M. Altonaga in the Southern District of Florida (Miami) ranked 3rd with 6 defendants in white collar crime cases.