Percent Change from 5 years ago (Including Magistrate Court)
Percent Change from 5 years ago (Excluding Magistrate Court)
Table 1. Criminal Prosecutions
The latest available data from the Justice Department show that during July 2023 the government reported 5367 new prosecutions.
According to the case-by-case information analyzed by the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC), this number is down 8.7 percent over the previous month.
The comparisons of the number of defendants charged are based on case-by-case information obtained by TRAC under the Freedom of Information Act from the Executive Office for United States Attorneys (see Table 1).
When monthly 2023 prosecutions of this type are compared with those of the same period in
the previous year, the number of filings was down (-3.7%).
Prosecutions over the past year are still much lower than they were five years ago.
Overall, the data show that prosecutions of this type are down 57.3 percent from levels reported in 2018.
The dip in
these cases is partly related to increases in the matters filed in U.S. Magistrate Courts. If magistrate cases
are excluded and only Federal District Court cases are counted, the overall decrease in
prosecutions is 34.1 percent instead of 57.3 percent.
The evidence suggests that part of the difference may be the result of improvements in the recording of the magistrate cases
by the Justice Department.
Figure 1. Monthly Trends in Prosecutions
The decrease from the levels five years ago in prosecutions for these matters is shown more clearly in Figure 1.
The vertical bars in Figure 1
represent the number of prosecutions of this type recorded on a month-to-month
basis. Where a prosecution was initially filed in U.S. Magistrate Court and then transferred to the U.S. District Court,
the magistrate filing date was used since this provides an earlier indicator of actual trends.
The superimposed line on the bars plots the six-month moving average so
that natural fluctuations are smoothed out. The one and five-year rates of change in Table 1 and in the sections that follow are all based upon this six-month moving average. To view trends year-by-year rather than month-by-month, see TRAC's annual report series for a broader picture.
Cases were classified by prosecutors into more specific types.
The largest number of prosecutions of these matters in July 2023 was for "Immigration", accounting for 32.2 percent of prosecutions. Prosecutions were also filed for "Withheld by Govt from TRAC (FOIA challen" (15.8%), "Drugs-Drug Trafficking" (13.8%), "Weapons-Operation Triggerlock Major" (10.7%), "Drugs-Organized Crime Task Force" (4.5%), "Project Safe Childhood" (3.7%), "Assimilated Crimes" (3%), "Other Criminal Prosecutions" (2.9%).
See Figure 2.
The lead investigative agency for prosecutions in July 2023
was DHS accounting for 41 percent of prosecutions referred.
Other agencies with substantial numbers of referrals were:
FBI (18% ), DEA (12%), ATF (10%), Local (3%).
See Figure 3.
Figure 2. Specific Types of Prosecutions
Figure 3. Prosecutions by Investigative Agency
Prosecutions in U.S. Magistrate Courts
Top Ranked Lead Charges
In July 2023, 2308 defendants were filed in U.S. Magistrate Courts.
These courts handle less serious
misdemeanor cases, including what are called "petty offenses." In
addition, complaints are sometimes filed in the magistrate courts before
an indictment or information is entered. In these cases, the matter
starts in the magistrate courts and later moves to the district court
where subsequent proceedings take place.
In the magistrate courts in July the most frequently cited lead charge was
Title 8 U.S.C Section 1326 involving "Reentry of deported alien". This was the lead charge
for 42.2 percent of all magistrate filings in July.
Other frequently prosecuted lead charges include: "08 USC 1324 - Bringing in and harboring certain aliens" (13.4%), "21 USC 841 - Drug Abuse Prevention & Control-Prohibited acts A" (5.8%).
Prosecutions in U.S. District Courts
In July 2023, 3059 defendants in new cases
for these matters were charged in the U.S. District Courts. In addition during July there
were an additional 1653 defendants whose cases moved from the magistrate
courts to the U.S. district courts after an indictment or information
was filed. The sections which follow cover both sets of cases and
therefore cover all matters filed in district court during July.
Top Ranked Lead Charges
Table 2 shows the top lead charges recorded in the prosecutions of matters
filed in U.S. District Court during July 2023.
"Reentry of deported alien" (Title 8 U.S.C Section 1326) was the most frequent recorded lead charge.
"Reentry of deported alien" (Title 8 U.S.C Section 1326) was ranked 1 a year ago, while it was ranked 1 five years ago.
Ranked 2nd in frequency was the lead charge "Drug Abuse Prevention & Control-Prohibited acts A" under Title 21 U.S.C Section 841.
"Drug Abuse Prevention & Control-Prohibited acts A" under Title 21 U.S.C Section 841 was ranked 2 a year ago, while it was ranked 2 five years ago.
Ranked 3rd was "Firearms; Unlawful acts" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 922.
"Firearms; Unlawful acts" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 922 was ranked 3 a year ago, while it was ranked 3 five years ago.
Among these top ten lead charges, the one showing the greatest
increase in prosecutions — up 74 percent — compared to one year ago was Title 18 U.S.C Section 1349
that involves " Mail Fraud - Attempt and Conspiracy ".
Compared to five years ago, the largest increase — 39.4 percent — was registered for
prosecutions under " Fraud by wire, radio, or television " (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1343 ).
Again among the top ten lead charges, the one showing the sharpest
decline in prosecutions compared to one year ago — down 25 percent — was
" Importation of controlled substances " (Title 21 U.S.C Section 952 ).
Compared to five years ago, the most significant decline in prosecutions — 37.7 percent — was
for filings where the lead charge was " Reentry of deported alien " (Title 8 U.S.C Section 1326 ).
Top Ranked Judicial Districts
In July 2023 the Justice Department's case-by-case records show that the government brought 1703.7 prosecutions for every ten million people in the United States.
Understandably, there is great variation in the per capita number of prosecutions that are filed in each of the nation's ninety-four federal judicial districts.
The districts registering the
largest number of prosecutions per capita for these matters last month are shown in Table 3.
Districts must have at least 5 prosecutions to receive a ranking.
Table 3. Top 10 Districts (per ten million people)
The Southern District of California (San Diego) — with 11495 prosecutions as compared with 1703.7 prosecutions per ten million population in the United States — was the most active during July 2023.
The Southern District of California (San Diego) was ranked 4 a year ago, while it was ranked 3 for most frequent use five years ago.
The District of New Mexico ranked 2nd.
The District of New Mexico was ranked 5 a year ago, while it was ranked 5 for most frequent use five years ago.
District of Washington, D.C. (Washington) is now ranking 3rd.
Recent entrants to the top 10 list were
South Dakota , now ranked
, and Washington, D.C. (Washington)
In the same order, these districts ranked 24th and 25th one year ago and 37th and 47th five years ago.
The federal judicial district which showed the greatest growth
in the rate of prosecutions compared to one year ago — 24.8 percent — was
Northern District of Oklahoma (Tulsa).
This was the same district that had the largest increase — 94.1 percent — when compared with five years ago.
In the last year, the judicial District Court recording the
largest drop in the rate of prosecutions — 17.1 percent — was
Southern District of Texas (Houston).
But over the past five years,
showed the largest drop — 52.8 percent.
Top Ranked District Judges
At any one time, there are about 680 federal District Court judges working in the United States. The judges recorded with the largest number of new crime cases of this type during July 2023 are shown in Table 4.
A total of 9 out of the "top ten" judges were in districts which were in the top ten with the largest number of filings per capita, while the remaining 1 judges were from other districts.
Judge Alia M. Moses in the Western District of Texas (San Antonio) ranked 1st with 185 defendants in cases.
Judge Moses appeared in the top ten rankings one year (ranked 1) and five years ago (rank 1).
Judge Kathleen Cardone in the Western District of Texas (San Antonio) ranked 2nd with 91 defendants in cases.
Judge Cardone appeared in the top ten rankings one year (ranked 9) and five years ago (rank 7).
Judge Kenneth John Gonzales in the District of New Mexico ranked 3rd with 66 defendants in cases.
Judge Gonzales appeared in the top ten rankings one year (ranked 6) and five years ago (rank 5).