Putting TRAC to Work
  Legal and Scholarly
Punishment & Society, SAGE Journals
April 2022

Punishing status and the punishment status quo: Solitary confinement in U.S. Immigration prisons, 20132017
By Konrad Franco, Caitlin Patler, and Keramet Reiter, University of California


We analyze three administrative datasets from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), gathered via Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. The first dataset, acquired by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ), contains 5,237 cases of solitary confinement placements from September 4, 2013 to March 4, 2017, covering cases across 102 facilities under the jurisdiction of 24 ICE Field Office Areas of Responsibility (AORs). The second dataset, acquired by TRAC, contains individual-level data on all 355,678 people detained by ICE during FY 2015 (October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015), the only year for which such data exist for public use. This allows us to compare solitary confinement cases to overall ICE populations. The third dataset, also acquired by TRAC, contains information on all ICE detention facilities from 2009 to 2018, allowing us to control for facility-level characteristics that may impact solitary confinement use.


Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse, Syracuse University
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