About the Data

Data Source. The data accessible through the Bonds data tool are based upon analyses of court records by the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC) at Syracuse University. These case-by-case, hearing-by-hearing, records were obtained from the Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR) using the Freedom of Information Act. EOIR is the administrative body that supervises the operation of the Immigration Court system. The names of the individuals, as well as any other personal identifiers, are removed from the records before the information is released to TRAC.

Time Period. The earliest statistics TRAC compiled on bond hearings start from October 2000 (FY 2001). The period of coverage then extends through the date of the latest court records the research data center has received. The most recent month of coverage is indicated under the app's title

Coverage. All matters where an Immigration Court bond hearing has been held are covered. If more than one bond hearing was held for the same case, only the last bond hearing is included so that the information reflects a count of individuals who have had bond hearings, not the number of hearings. The court records on bond hearings are then combined with the court records on the case proceedings for that same individual. If there has been more than one proceeding, only the most recent proceeding is included.

When the "Case Outcome after Bond Granted" tab is selected, only Immigration Court case proceedings held after bond was granted are displayed. Otherwise the app displays information on all matters where a bond hearing had been held. For further description of the effect of switching among tab selections, see Help Using the App Tool.

Data dimensions. By selecting a different factor from the pull-down menu above each table, different information can be displayed. Choices include information both about the bond hearing as well as on the related court proceeding.

Bond Hearing Tab Selections:

  • Bond Hearing Fiscal Year. The federal government's fiscal year runs from October 1 to September 30. So, for example, FY 2018 will return bond hearings decided from October 1, 2017 through September 30, 2018.

  • Bond Hearing Month and Year. The month and year of the bond hearing.

  • Bond Hearing Immigration Court State. The state or territory where the Immigration Court assigned administrative responsibility for the bond hearing is located. Note that the actual hearing location may be in a different state, since some courts handle matters in more than one state.

  • Bond Hearing Immigration Court. There are Immigration Courts located in different parts of the country assigned the administrative responsibility for handling matters in their geographic district. Courts are usually referred to by the city or place where they are located - what EOIR refers to as their "base city."

  • Bond Hearing Location. Each Immigration Court usually has more than one geographic location in which judges hold hearings. Sometimes videoconferencing is used so that the individual and judge are not in the same location. Normally a hearing location is administered by a single Immigration Court.

  • Bond Hearing Representation. Whether the individual did ("Yes") or did not ("No") have an attorney to help present the individual's arguments on granting bond.

  • Bond Hearing Outcome. Whether bond was "Granted" or "Not Granted." Releases under personal recognizance ($0 bond) are included under "Granted."

  • Bond Amount Set. The dollar amount of bond set, grouped into ranges.

  • Nationality. The recorded nationality of the individual.

Case Hearing Tab Selections:
  • Bond Hearing Fiscal Year. The federal government's fiscal year runs from October 1 to September 30. So, for example, FY 2018 will return bond hearings decided from October 1, 2017 through September 30, 2018.

  • Bond Hearing Month and Year. The month and year of the bond hearing.

  • Bond Hearing Immigration Court State. The state or territory where the Immigration Court assigned administrative responsibility for the bond hearing is located. Note that the actual hearing location may be in a different state, since some courts handle matters in more than one state.

  • Bond Hearing Immigration Court. There are Immigration Courts located in different parts of the country assigned the administrative responsibility for handling matters in their geographic district. Courts are usually referred to by the city or place where they are located - what EOIR refers to as their "base city."

  • Bond Hearing Location. Each Immigration Court usually has more than one geographic location in which judges hold hearings.

  • Case Custody. Whether the individual is still "Detained" or has been "Released."

  • Case Representation. Whether the individual did ("Yes") or did not ("No") have an attorney to help present the individual's case.

  • Case Absentia. Whether the individual was absent at the hearing in which a decision was reached by the Immigration Judge on their case.

  • Case Outcome. This records the decision or basis for the Immigration Judge closing the case, and will also indicate if the case is still pending. The following decision outcomes are available:

    • Removal Orders. Cases in which an Immigration Court Judge sustains the charges against the individual and issues a removal order. The term "removal" is used in a generic sense and includes orders of deportation, exclusion, etc. A removal order bars the individual from returning to the U.S. for a period of years, or in some cases permanently.

    • Voluntary Departure Orders. Cases in which an Immigration Court Judge sustains the charges against the individual and issues an order of voluntary departure. A so-called "voluntary departure" is when the individual is required to leave the country but is not legally barred from returning.

    • Terminate Proceedings. Cases in which an Immigration Court Judge finds the Department of Homeland Security has not established that the individual is legally removable. These individuals are allowed to remain in the U.S.

    • Relief Granted. Cases in which an Immigration Court Judge finds the original charges filed by DHS as the grounds for removal are sustained, but finds provisions in the immigration law entitle the individual to "relief" from removal (for example, asylum is granted), allowing the individual to remain in this country.

    • Other Closure. Cases in which an Immigration Court Judge decides not to deport the individual for other unspecified reasons, or closes the case administratively. This category also includes closures in which the individual is given a temporary protected status.

  • Nationality. The recorded nationality of the individual.

Additional Selections Available using the Advanced Tab:
  • Case Decision before Bond Hearing. Whether the case decision was "Before," the "Same Week," or "After" the bond hearing took place. "Same Week" was defined as within 7 days of one another. Also indicates when the individual's case was not before the Immigration Court ["No Court Case"]. This occurs when the court's jurisdiction is limited to custody issues - that is, deciding whether a bond should be set, and its amount.

  • Case Decision Fiscal Year. The federal government's fiscal year runs from October 1 to September 30. So, for example, FY 2018 will return cases decided from October 1, 2017 through September 30, 2018. Because some case decisions occurred before the bond hearing, fiscal years include some before FY 2001 (October 2000).

  • Case Decision Month and Year. The month and year the case was decided.

  • Case Decision Immigration Court State. The state or territory where the Immigration Court assigned administrative responsibility for the case is located. Note that the actual hearing location may be in a different state, since some courts handle proceedings in more than one state.

  • Case Decision Immigration Court. There are Immigration Courts located in different parts of the country assigned the administrative responsibility for handling proceedings in their geographic district. Courts are usually referred to by the city or place where they are located - what EOIR refers to as their "base city."

  • Case Decision Hearing Location. Each Immigration Court usually has more than one geographic location in which judges hold hearings. Sometimes videoconferencing is used so that the individual and judge are not in the same location. Normally a hearing location is administered by a single Immigration Court.

Additional TRAC Immigration Enforcement Data and Tools

To access additional data using other TRAC immigration enforcement tools, go to this directory of data tools.