TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 93 - PUBLIC OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES
Sec. 1905. Disclosure of confidential information generally
Whoever, being an officer or employee of the United States or of
any department or agency thereof, any person acting on behalf of
the Federal Housing Finance Agency, or agent of the Department of
Justice as defined in the Antitrust Civil Process Act (15 U.S.C.
1311-1314), or being an employee of a private sector organization
who is or was assigned to an agency under chapter 37 of title 5,
publishes, divulges, discloses, or makes known in any manner or to
any extent not authorized by law any information coming to him in
the course of his employment or official duties or by reason of any
examination or investigation made by, or return, report or record
made to or filed with, such department or agency or officer or
employee thereof, which information concerns or relates to the
trade secrets, processes, operations, style of work, or apparatus,
or to the identity, confidential statistical data, amount or source
of any income, profits, losses, or expenditures of any person,
firm, partnership, corporation, or association; or permits any
income return or copy thereof or any book containing any abstract
or particulars thereof to be seen or examined by any person except
as provided by law; shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned
not more than one year, or both; and shall be removed from office
(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 791; Pub. L. 96-349, Sec. 7(b),
Sept. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 1158; Pub. L. 102-550, title XIII, Sec.
1353, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3970; Pub. L. 104-294, title VI,
Sec. 601(a)(8), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3498; Pub. L. 107-347,
title II, Sec. 209(d)(2), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2930; Pub. L.
110-289, div. A, title I, Sec. 1161(d), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat.
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
Based on section 176b of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Commerce and
Trade; section 216 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed.; section 1335 of
title 19, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Customs Duties (R.S. Sec. 3167; Aug.
27, 1894, ch. 349, Sec. 24, 28 Stat. 557; Feb. 26, 1926, ch. 27,
Sec. 1115, 44 Stat. 117; June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, Sec.
335, 46 Stat. 701; Jan. 27, 1938, ch. 11, Sec. 2, 52 Stat. 8).
Section consolidates section 176b of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed.,
Commerce and Trade; section 216 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and
section 1335 of title 19, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Customs Duties.
Words "or of any department or agency thereof" and words "such
department or agency" were inserted so as to eliminate any possible
ambiguity as to scope of section. (See definition of "department"
and "agency" in section 6 of this title.)
References to the offenses as misdemeanors, contained in all of
said sections, were omitted in view of definitive section 1 of this
The provisions of section 216 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed.,
relating to publication of income tax data by "any person", were
omitted as covered by section 55(f)(1) of title 26, U.S.C., 1940
ed., Internal Revenue Code.
Minor changes were made in translations and phraseology.
REFERENCES IN TEXT
The Antitrust Civil Process Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L.
87-664, Sept. 19, 1962, 76 Stat. 548, as amended, which is
classified generally to chapter 34 (Sec. 1311 et seq.) of Title 15,
Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the
Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1311 of Title 15
2008 - Pub. L. 110-289 substituted "Federal Housing Finance
Agency" for "Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight".
2002 - Pub. L. 107-347 inserted "or being an employee of a
private sector organization who is or was assigned to an agency
under chapter 37 of title 5," after "(15 U.S.C. 1311-1314),".
1996 - Pub. L. 104-294 substituted "fined under this title" for
"fined not more than $1,000".
1992 - Pub. L. 102-550 inserted "any person acting on behalf of
the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight," after "or
1980 - Pub. L. 96-349 provided for punishment and removal from
office of an agent of the Department of Justice as defined in the
Antitrust Civil Process Act for disclosure of confidential
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT
Amendment by Pub. L. 107-347 effective 120 days after Dec. 17,
2002, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 107-347, set out as an
Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 44, Public Printing
Transactional Records Access
Clearinghouse, Syracuse University