White Collar Crime Convictions for July 2012
Table 1: Criminal White Collar Crime Convictions
The latest available data from the Justice Department show that during July 2012 the government reported 627 new white collar crime convictions.
According to the case-by-case information analyzed by the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC), this number is up 17.6% over the previous month.
|White Collar Crime
This report summarizes the government's recent efforts when it comes to combating white
collar crime—the number of such cases, the investigative agencies involved, the laws cited, the
busiest federal districts and the busiest federal judges.
The comparisons of the number of defendants convicted for white collar crime-related offenses are based on case-by-case information obtained by TRAC under the Freedom
of Information Act from the Executive Office for United States Attorneys. (See Table 1)
When monthly 2012 convictions of this type are compared with those of the same period in
the previous year, the number of convictions was down (-11.2 percent).
Convictions over the past year are still much higher than they were five years ago.
Overall, the data show that convictions of this type are up 2.8 percent from levels reported in 2007.
The leveling out from the levels five years ago in white collar crime convictions for these matters is shown more clearly in Figure 1.
The vertical bars in Figure 1
represent the number of white collar crime convictions of this type recorded on a month-to-month
basis. Where a prosecution was initially filed in U.S. Magistrate Court and then transferred to the U.S. District Court,
the magistrate filing date was used since this provides an earlier indicator of actual trends.
The superimposed line on the bars plots the six-month moving average so
that natural fluctuations are smoothed out. The one and five-year rates of change in Table 1 and in the sections that follow are all based upon this six-month moving average. To view trends year-by-year rather than month-by-month, see TRAC's annual report series for a broader picture.
Figure 1: Monthly trends in white collar crime convictions
Within the broad category of white collar crime, cases were classified by prosecutors into more specific types.
Case types within white collar crime are
| ||Federal Procurement Fraud
|| ||Federal Program Fraud
| ||Tax Fraud
|| ||Arson for Profit
| ||Other Insurance Fraud
|| ||Financial Institution Fraud
| ||Bankruptcy Fraud
|| ||Advance Fee Schemes
| ||Other Fraud Against Businesses
|| ||Consumer Fraud
| ||Securities Fraud
|| ||Commodities Fraud
| ||Other Investment Fraud
|| ||Antitrust Violations - Other
| ||Computer Fraud
|| ||Health Care Fraud
| ||Fraud Against Insurance Providers
|| ||Intellectual Property Violations
| ||Insider Fraud Against Insurance Providers
|| ||MEWA (Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements) Fraud/MET
| ||Antitrust Violations - Airlines
|| ||Antitrust Violations - Banking
| ||Antitrust Violations - Defense Procurement
|| ||Antitrust Violations - Extraterritorial Application Of
| ||Antitrust Violations - Finance Markets, Other than Banking
|| ||Telemarketing Fraud
| ||Corporate Fraud
|| ||Identity Theft
| ||Aggravated Identity Theft
|| ||Other White Collar Crime/Fraud
The largest number of convictions of these matters in July 2012 was for "Fraud-Financial Institution", accounting for 16.7 percent of convictions. Convictions were also filed for "Fraud-Identity Theft-Other" (11.6%), "Fraud-Other" (
11.5%), "Fraud-Federal Program" (10%), "Fraud-Mortgage" (10%), "Fraud-Tax" (7.8%), "Fraud-Other Business" (6.4%), "Fraud-Health Care" (5.9%), "Fraud-Identity Theft-Aggravated" (5.7%), "Fraud-Computer" (2.1%), "Fraud-Securities" (2.1%).
See Figure 2.
The lead investigative agency for white collar crime convictions in July 2012
was FBI accounting for 29 percent of convictions.
Other agencies with substantial numbers of white collar crime convictions were:
SecServ (22% ), IRS (10%), Postal (9%), DHS (8%).
See Figure 3.
Figure 2: Specific types of convictions
Figure 3: Convictions by investigative agency
White Collar Crime Convictions in U.S. Magistrate Courts
Top Ranked Lead Charges
In July 2012, 32 defendants
in white collar crime cases for these matters were
filed in U.S. Magistrate Courts. These courts handle less serious
misdemeanor cases, including what are called "petty offenses." In
addition, complaints are sometimes filed in the magistrate courts before
an indictment or information is entered. In these cases, the matter
starts in the magistrate courts and later moves to the district court
where subsequent proceedings take place.
In the magistrate courts in July the most frequently cited lead charge was
Title 18 U.S.C Section 1028 involving the "Aggravated Identity Theft". This was the lead charge
for 84.4 percent of all magistrate convictions in July.
White Collar Crime Convictions in U.S. District Courts
In July 2012, 595 defendants in new cases
for these matters were charged in the U.S. District Courts. In addition during July there
were an additional 0 defendants whose cases moved from the magistrate
courts to the U.S. district courts after an indictment or information
was filed. The sections which follow cover both sets of cases and
therefore cover all matters filed in district court during July.
Top Ranked Lead Charges
Table 2 shows the top lead charges recorded in the convictions of white collar crime matters
filed in U.S. District Court during July 2012.
Table 2: Top charges for convictions
"Bank Fraud" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1344) was the most frequent recorded lead charge.
"Bank Fraud" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1344) was ranked 1 a year ago, while it was ranked 1 five years ago.
Ranked 2nd in frequency was the lead charge "Fraud by wire, radio, or television" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1343.
"Fraud by wire, radio, or television" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1343 was ranked 3 a year ago, while it was ranked 3 five years ago.
Ranked 3rd was "Conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud US" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 371.
"Conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud US" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 371 was ranked 4 a year ago, while it was ranked 5 five years ago.
Among these top ten lead charges, the one showing the greatest
increase in convictions—up 39.7 percent—compared to one year ago was Title 18 U.S.C Section 371
that involves " Conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud US
Compared to five years ago, the largest increase—438.6 percent—was registered for
convictions under " Mail Fraud - Attempt and Conspiracy
" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1349 ).
Again among the top ten lead charges, the one showing the sharpest
decline in convictions compared to one year ago—down 23.4 percent—was
Fraud and False statements
(Title 26 U.S.C Section 7206 ).
Compared to five years ago, the most significant decline in convictions— 15.7 percent—was
for convictions where the lead charge was " Fraud and related activity - id documents
" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1028
Top Ranked Judicial Districts
In July 2012 the Justice Department said the government obtained 232.6 white collar crime convictions for every ten million people in the United States.
Understandably, there is great variation in the per capita number of white collar crime convictions in each of the nation's ninety-four federal judicial districts.
The districts registering the
largest number of convictions per capita for these matters last month are shown in Table 3.
Districts must have at least 5 white collar crime convictions to receive a ranking.
Table 3: Top 10 districts (per ten million people)
The Southern District of Alabama (Mobile)—with 1745 convictions as compared with 232.6 convictions per ten million population in the United States—was the most active during July 2012.
The Southern District of Florida (Miami) ranked 2nd.
The Southern District of Florida (Miami) was ranked 1 a year ago, while it was ranked 1 for most frequent use five years ago.
Middle District of Alabama (Montgomery) is now ranking 3rd.
Recent entrants to the top 10 list were
South Carolina , now ranked
, and Eastern District of Missouri (St. Louis)
In the same order, these districts ranked 12th and 15th one year ago and 8th and 10th five years ago.
The federal judicial district which showed the greatest growth
in the rate of white collar crime convictions compared to one year ago— 171.4 percent—was
Southern District of Alabama (Mobile).
This was the same district that had the largest increase— 307.1 percent—when compared with five years ago.
In the last year, the judicial District Court recording the
largest drop in the rate of white collar crime convictions— 29.2 percent—was
Eastern District of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia).
But over the past five years,
Northern District of Mississippi (Oxford)
showed the largest drop— 18.8 percent.
Top Ranked District Judges
At any one time, there are about 680 federal District Court judges working in the United States. The judges recorded with the largest number of new white collar crime crime cases resulting in convictions of this type
during July 2012 are shown in Table 4.
A total of 9 out of the "top ten" judges were in districts which were in the top ten with the largest number of white collar crime convictions per capita, while the remaining 2 judges were from other districts.
(Because of ties, there were a total of 11 judges in the "top ten" rankings.)
Judge Melinda Harmon in the Southern District of Texas (Houston) ranked 1st with 12 convicted in white collar crime convictions.
Judge William J. Zloch in the Southern District of Florida (Miami) ranked 2nd with 11 convicted in white collar crime convictions.
Judge Cecilia M. Altonaga in the Southern District of Florida (Miami) ranked 3rd with 9 convicted in white collar crime convictions.
Report Generated: October 1, 2012