White Collar Crime Convictions for December 2012
Table 1: Criminal White Collar Crime Convictions
The latest available data from the Justice Department show that during December 2012 the government reported 530 new white collar crime convictions.
According to the case-by-case information analyzed by the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC), this number is up 2.1% over the previous month.
|White Collar Crime
This report summarizes the government's recent efforts when it comes to combating white
collar crime—the number of such cases, the investigative agencies involved, the laws cited, the
busiest federal districts and the busiest federal judges.
The comparisons of the number of defendants convicted for white collar crime-related offenses are based on case-by-case information obtained by TRAC under the Freedom
of Information Act from the Executive Office for United States Attorneys. (See Table 1)
When monthly 2012 convictions of this type are compared with those of the same period in
the previous year, the number of convictions was down (-12.5 percent).
Convictions over the past year are still much higher than they were five years ago.
Overall, the data show that convictions of this type are up 11.1 percent from levels reported in 2007.
The growth in
these cases is partly related to increases in the matters filed in U.S. Magistrate Courts. If magistrate cases
are excluded and only Federal District Court cases are counted, the overall increase in
white collar crime convictions is 8.5 percent instead of 11.1 percent.
The evidence suggests that part of the difference may be the result of improvements in the recording of the magistrate cases
by the Justice Department.
The increase from the levels five years ago in white collar crime convictions for these matters is shown more clearly in Figure 1.
The vertical bars in Figure 1
represent the number of white collar crime convictions of this type recorded on a month-to-month
basis. Where a prosecution was initially filed in U.S. Magistrate Court and then transferred to the U.S. District Court,
the magistrate filing date was used since this provides an earlier indicator of actual trends.
The superimposed line on the bars plots the six-month moving average so
that natural fluctuations are smoothed out. The one and five-year rates of change in Table 1 and in the sections that follow are all based upon this six-month moving average. To view trends year-by-year rather than month-by-month, see TRAC's annual report series for a broader picture.
Figure 1: Monthly trends in white collar crime convictions
Within the broad category of white collar crime, cases were classified by prosecutors into more specific types.
Case types within white collar crime are
| ||Federal Procurement Fraud
|| ||Federal Program Fraud
| ||Tax Fraud
|| ||Arson for Profit
| ||Other Insurance Fraud
|| ||Financial Institution Fraud
| ||Bankruptcy Fraud
|| ||Advance Fee Schemes
| ||Other Fraud Against Businesses
|| ||Consumer Fraud
| ||Securities Fraud
|| ||Commodities Fraud
| ||Other Investment Fraud
|| ||Antitrust Violations - Other
| ||Computer Fraud
|| ||Health Care Fraud
| ||Fraud Against Insurance Providers
|| ||Intellectual Property Violations
| ||Insider Fraud Against Insurance Providers
|| ||MEWA (Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements) Fraud/MET
| ||Antitrust Violations - Airlines
|| ||Antitrust Violations - Banking
| ||Antitrust Violations - Defense Procurement
|| ||Antitrust Violations - Extraterritorial Application Of
| ||Antitrust Violations - Finance Markets, Other than Banking
|| ||Telemarketing Fraud
| ||Corporate Fraud
|| ||Identity Theft
| ||Aggravated Identity Theft
|| ||Other White Collar Crime/Fraud
The largest number of convictions of these matters in December 2012 was for "Fraud-Other", accounting for 16 percent of convictions. Convictions were also filed for "Fraud-Financial Institution" (12.1%), "Fraud-Health Care" (11.3%), "
Fraud-Federal Program" (10.6%), "Fraud-Tax" (10.6%), "Fraud-Identity Theft-Other" (7.9%), "Fraud-Mortgage" (7%), "Fraud-Other Business" (5.5%), "Fraud-Identity Theft-Aggravated" (5.1%), "Fraud-Other Investment" (2.1%), "Fraud-Securities" (2.1%).
See Figure 2.
The lead investigative agency for white collar crime convictions in December 2012
was FBI accounting for 31 percent of convictions.
Other agencies with substantial numbers of white collar crime convictions were:
IRS (14% ), SecServ (13%), Postal (9%), DHS (7%).
See Figure 3.
Figure 2: Specific types of convictions
Figure 3: Convictions by investigative agency
White Collar Crime Convictions in U.S. Magistrate Courts
Top Ranked Lead Charges
In December 2012, 14 defendants
in white collar crime cases for these matters were
filed in U.S. Magistrate Courts. These courts handle less serious
misdemeanor cases, including what are called "petty offenses." In
addition, complaints are sometimes filed in the magistrate courts before
an indictment or information is entered. In these cases, the matter
starts in the magistrate courts and later moves to the district court
where subsequent proceedings take place.
In the magistrate courts in December the most frequently cited lead charge was
Title 18 U.S.C Section 1028 involving the "Aggravated Identity Theft". This was the lead charge
for 57.1 percent of all magistrate convictions in December.
White Collar Crime Convictions in U.S. District Courts
In December 2012, 516 defendants in new cases
for these matters were charged in the U.S. District Courts. In addition during December there
were an additional 0 defendants whose cases moved from the magistrate
courts to the U.S. district courts after an indictment or information
was filed. The sections which follow cover both sets of cases and
therefore cover all matters filed in district court during December.
Top Ranked Lead Charges
Table 2 shows the top lead charges recorded in the convictions of white collar crime matters
filed in U.S. District Court during December 2012.
Table 2: Top charges for convictions
"Fraud by wire, radio, or television" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1343) was the most frequent recorded lead charge.
"Fraud by wire, radio, or television" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1343) was ranked 3 a year ago, while it was ranked 3 five years ago.
Ranked 2nd in frequency was the lead charge "Mail Fraud - Frauds and swindles" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1341.
"Mail Fraud - Frauds and swindles" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1341 was ranked 2 a year ago, while it was ranked 2 five years ago.
Ranked 3rd was "Bank Fraud" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1344.
"Bank Fraud" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1344 was ranked 1 a year ago, while it was ranked 1 five years ago.
Among these top ten lead charges, the one showing the greatest
increase in convictions—up 24.8 percent—compared to one year ago was Title 18 U.S.C Section 371
that involves " Conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud US
Compared to five years ago, the largest increase—783.3 percent—was registered for
convictions under " Mail Fraud - Attempt and Conspiracy
" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1349 ).
Again among the top ten lead charges, the one showing the sharpest
decline in convictions compared to one year ago—down 18.5 percent—was
Mail Fraud - Attempt and Conspiracy
(Title 18 U.S.C Section 1349 ).
Compared to five years ago, the most significant decline in convictions— 26.3 percent—was
for convictions where the lead charge was " Bank Fraud
" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1344
Top Ranked Judicial Districts
In December 2012 the Justice Department said the government obtained 201.7 white collar crime convictions for every ten million people in the United States.
Understandably, there is great variation in the per capita number of white collar crime convictions in each of the nation's ninety-four federal judicial districts.
The districts registering the
largest number of convictions per capita for these matters last month are shown in Table 3.
Districts must have at least 5 white collar crime convictions to receive a ranking.
Table 3: Top 10 districts (per ten million people)
The Southern District of Illinois (East St. Louis)—with 1130 convictions as compared with 201.7 convictions per ten million population in the United States—was the most active during December 2012.
The Eastern District of Louisiana (New Orleans) ranked 2nd.
Southern District of Florida (Miami) is now ranking 3rd.
The Southern District of Florida (Miami) was ranked 1 a year ago, while it was ranked 1 for most frequent use five years ago.
Recent entrants to the top 10 list were
South Carolina , now ranked
, and Southern District of Mississippi (Jackson)
In the same order, these districts ranked 16th and 18th one year ago and 7th and 24th five years ago.
The federal judicial district which showed the greatest growth
in the rate of white collar crime convictions compared to one year ago— 30 percent—was
Eastern District of Louisiana (New Orleans).
Compared to five years ago, the district with the largest growth— 244.4 percent—was
Southern District of Illinois (East St. Louis).
In the last year, the judicial District Court recording the
largest drop in the rate of white collar crime convictions— 30 percent—was
Southern District of Mississippi (Jackson).
But over the past five years,
showed the largest drop— 38.1 percent.
Top Ranked District Judges
At any one time, there are about 680 federal District Court judges working in the United States. The judges recorded with the largest number of new white collar crime crime cases resulting in convictions of this type
during December 2012 are shown in Table 4.
A total of 7 out of the "top ten" judges were in districts which were in the top ten with the largest number of white collar crime convictions per capita, while the remaining 5 judges were from other districts.
(Because of ties, there were a total of 12 judges in the "top ten" rankings.)
Judge Lance M. Africk in the Eastern District of Louisiana (New Orleans) ranked 1st with 12 convicted in white collar crime convictions.
Judge Micaela Alvarez in the Southern District of Texas (Houston) ranked 2nd with 11 convicted in white collar crime convictions.
Judge David C. Norton in the District of South Carolina ranked 3rd with 10 convicted in white collar crime convictions.
Report Generated: February 20, 2013