Immigration Convictions for March 2014
Table 1. Criminal Immigration Convictions
The latest available data from the Justice Department show that during March 2014 the government reported 6710 new immigration convictions.
According to the case-by-case information analyzed by the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC), this number is up 11.4 percent over the previous month.
The comparisons of the number of defendants convicted for immigration-related offenses are based on case-by-case information obtained by TRAC under the Freedom
of Information Act from the Executive Office for United States Attorneys (see Table 1).
When monthly 2014 convictions of this type are compared with those of the same period in
the previous year, the number of convictions was down (-23.3%).
Convictions over the past year are still much lower than they were five years ago.
Overall, the data show that convictions of this type are down 19.6 percent from levels reported in 2009.
The dip in
these cases is partly related to increases in the matters filed in U.S. Magistrate Courts. If magistrate cases
are excluded and only Federal District Court cases are counted, the overall decrease in
immigration convictions is 9.3 percent instead of 19.6 percent.
The evidence suggests that part of the difference may be the result of improvements in the recording of the magistrate cases
by the Justice Department.
Figure 1. Monthly Trends in Immigration Convictions
The decrease from the levels five years ago in immigration convictions for these matters is shown more clearly in Figure 1.
The vertical bars in Figure 1
represent the number of immigration convictions of this type recorded on a month-to-month
basis. Where a prosecution was initially filed in U.S. Magistrate Court and then transferred to the U.S. District Court,
the magistrate filing date was used since this provides an earlier indicator of actual trends.
The superimposed line on the bars plots the six-month moving average so
that natural fluctuations are smoothed out. The one and five-year rates of change in Table 1 and in the sections that follow are all based upon this six-month moving average. To view trends year-by-year rather than month-by-month, see TRAC's annual report series for a broader picture.
Figure 2. Convictions by Investigative Agency
Virtually all federal criminal convictions for immigration offenses in March 2014
(100 percent) were referred by the Department of Homeland Security
(DHS). The two lead investigative agencies in DHS are Customs and Border Protection (CBP) whose border patrol
agencies guard the county's borders, and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), responsible for conducting
most immigration criminal investigations
under the immigration laws. See Figure 2.
Immigration Convictions in U.S. Magistrate Courts
Top Ranked Lead Charges
In March 2014, 4248 defendants
in immigration cases for these matters were
filed in U.S. Magistrate Courts. These courts handle less serious
misdemeanor cases, including what are called "petty offenses." In
addition, complaints are sometimes filed in the magistrate courts before
an indictment or information is entered. In these cases, the matter
starts in the magistrate courts and later moves to the district court
where subsequent proceedings take place.
In the magistrate courts in March the most frequently cited lead charge was
Title 8 U.S.C Section 1325 involving "Entry of alien at improper time or place; etc.". This was the lead charge
for 64.4 percent of all magistrate convictions in March.
Other frequently prosecuted lead charges include: "08 USC 1326 - Reentry of deported alien" (35%).
Immigration Convictions in U.S. District Courts
In March 2014, 2462 defendants in new cases
for these matters were charged in the U.S. District Courts. In addition during March there
were an additional 0 defendants whose cases moved from the magistrate
courts to the U.S. district courts after an indictment or information
was filed. The sections which follow cover both sets of cases and
therefore cover all matters filed in district court during March.
Top Ranked Lead Charges
Table 2 shows the top lead charges recorded in the convictions of immigration matters
filed in U.S. District Court during March 2014.
Table 2. Top Charges for Convictions
"Reentry of deported alien" (Title 8 U.S.C Section 1326) was the most frequent recorded lead charge.
"Reentry of deported alien" (Title 8 U.S.C Section 1326) was ranked 1 a year ago, while it was ranked 1 five years ago.
Ranked 2nd in frequency was the lead charge "Bringing in and harboring certain aliens" under Title 8 U.S.C Section 1324.
"Bringing in and harboring certain aliens" under Title 8 U.S.C Section 1324 was ranked 2 a year ago, while it was ranked 2 five years ago.
Ranked 3rd was "Fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other documents" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1546.
"Fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other documents" under Title 18 U.S.C Section 1546 was ranked 3 a year ago, while it was ranked 4 five years ago.
Among these top ten lead charges, the one showing the greatest
increase in convictions — up 433.3 percent — compared to one year ago was Title 18 U.S.C Section 1028
that involves " Aggravated Identity Theft
Compared to five years ago, the largest increase — 927.8 percent — was registered for
convictions under " Misuse of passport
" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1544 ).
Again among the top ten lead charges, the one showing the sharpest
decline in convictions compared to one year ago — down 24 percent — was
" Firearms; Unlawful acts
" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 922 ).
Compared to five years ago, the most significant decline in convictions — 83.4 percent — was
for convictions where the lead charge was " Fraud/false statements or entries generally
" (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1001
Top Ranked Judicial Districts
Understandably, there is great variation in the number of immigration convictions in each of the nation's ninety-four federal judicial districts.
The districts registering the
largest number of convictions of this type last month are shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Top 10 Districts
The Southern District of Texas (Houston) — with 453 convictions — was the most active during March 2014.
The Southern District of Texas (Houston) was ranked 1 a year ago, while it was ranked 1 for most frequent use five years ago.
The Western District of Texas (San Antonio) ranked 2nd.
The Western District of Texas (San Antonio) was ranked 2 a year ago, while it was ranked 2 for most frequent use five years ago.
District of New Mexico is now ranking 3rd.
The District of New Mexico was ranked 4 a year ago, while it was ranked 5 for most frequent use five years ago.
Recent entrants to the top 10 list were
Northern District of Texas (Fort Worth), now ranked
, and Eastern District of Michigan (Detroit)
In the same order, these districts ranked 12th and 22nd one year ago and 16th and 52nd five years ago.
The federal judicial district which showed the greatest growth
in immigration convictions compared to one year ago — 109.1 percent — was
Eastern District of Michigan (Detroit).
This was the same district that had the largest increase — 538.9 percent — when compared with five years ago.
In the last year, the judicial District Court recording the
largest drop in immigration convictions — 30.9 percent — was
Southern District of California (San Diego).
But over the past five years,
Central District of California (Los Angeles)
showed the largest drop — 61.9 percent.
Top Ranked District Judges
At any one time, there are about 680 federal District Court judges working in the United States. The judges recorded with the largest number of new immigration crime cases resulting in convictions of this type
during March 2014 are shown in Table 4.
All 10 of the "top ten" judges were in districts which were in the top ten with the largest number of immigration convictions.
Judge Robert C. Brack in the District of New Mexico ranked 1st with 131 convicted in immigration convictions.
Judge Brack appeared in the top ten rankings one year (ranked 1) and five years ago (rank 1).
Judge Kenneth John Gonzales in the District of New Mexico ranked 2nd with 96 convicted in immigration convictions.
Judge Alia Moses in the Western District of Texas (San Antonio) ranked 3rd with 92 convicted in immigration convictions.
Judge Moses also appeared in the top ten rankings one year ago (ranked 2).
Report Generated: May 13, 2014