All Agencies, Latest Month All Agencies, Current FY Geographic Distribution
of Convictions for
All Agencies, FY 2014
Prosecution Report
Not Available
25 Prosecutions
in Fiscal Year 2014
Conviction Report
Not Available
21 Convictions
in Fiscal Year 2014

CITE

    18 USC Sec. 1961                                            01/05/2009

EXPCITE

    TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
    PART I - CRIMES
    CHAPTER 96 - RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS

HEAD

    Sec. 1961. Definitions

STATUTE

      As used in this chapter -
        (1) "racketeering activity" means (A) any act or threat
      involving murder, kidnapping, gambling, arson, robbery, bribery,
      extortion, dealing in obscene matter, or dealing in a controlled
      substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the
      Controlled Substances Act), which is chargeable under State law
      and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year; (B) any
      act which is indictable under any of the following provisions of
      title 18, United States Code: Section 201 (relating to bribery),
      section 224 (relating to sports bribery), sections 471, 472, and
      473 (relating to counterfeiting), section 659 (relating to theft
      from interstate shipment) if the act indictable under section 659
      is felonious, section 664 (relating to embezzlement from pension
      and welfare funds), sections 891-894 (relating to extortionate
      credit transactions), section 1028 (relating to fraud and related
      activity in connection with identification documents), section
      1029 (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with
      access devices), section 1084 (relating to the transmission of
      gambling information), section 1341 (relating to mail fraud),
      section 1343 (relating to wire fraud), section 1344 (relating to
      financial institution fraud), section 1425 (relating to the
      procurement of citizenship or nationalization unlawfully),
      section 1426 (relating to the reproduction of naturalization or
      citizenship papers), section 1427 (relating to the sale of
      naturalization or citizenship papers), sections 1461-1465
      (relating to obscene matter), section 1503 (relating to
      obstruction of justice), section 1510 (relating to obstruction of
      criminal investigations), section 1511 (relating to the
      obstruction of State or local law enforcement), section 1512
      (relating to tampering with a witness, victim, or an informant),
      section 1513 (relating to retaliating against a witness, victim,
      or an informant), section 1542 (relating to false statement in
      application and use of passport), section 1543 (relating to
      forgery or false use of passport), section 1544 (relating to
      misuse of passport), section 1546 (relating to fraud and misuse
      of visas, permits, and other documents), sections 1581-1592
      (relating to peonage, slavery, and trafficking in persons).,(!1)
      section 1951 (relating to interference with commerce, robbery, or
      extortion), section 1952 (relating to racketeering), section 1953
      (relating to interstate transportation of wagering
      paraphernalia), section 1954 (relating to unlawful welfare fund
      payments), section 1955 (relating to the prohibition of illegal
      gambling businesses), section 1956 (relating to the laundering of
      monetary instruments), section 1957 (relating to engaging in
      monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful
      activity), section 1958 (relating to use of interstate commerce
      facilities in the commission of murder-for-hire), section 1960
      (relating to illegal money transmitters), sections 2251, 2251A,
      2252, and 2260 (relating to sexual exploitation of children),
      sections 2312 and 2313 (relating to interstate transportation of
      stolen motor vehicles), sections 2314 and 2315 (relating to
      interstate transportation of stolen property), section 2318
      (relating to trafficking in counterfeit labels for phonorecords,
      computer programs or computer program documentation or packaging
      and copies of motion pictures or other audiovisual works),
      section 2319 (relating to criminal infringement of a copyright),
      section 2319A (relating to unauthorized fixation of and
      trafficking in sound recordings and music videos of live musical
      performances), section 2320 (relating to trafficking in goods or
      services bearing counterfeit marks), section 2321 (relating to
      trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts),
      sections 2341-2346 (relating to trafficking in contraband
      cigarettes), sections 2421-24 (relating to white slave traffic),
      sections 175-178 (relating to biological weapons), sections 229-
      229F (relating to chemical weapons), section 831 (relating to
      nuclear materials), (C) any act which is indictable under title
      29, United States Code, section 186 (dealing with restrictions on
      payments and loans to labor organizations) or section 501(c)
      (relating to embezzlement from union funds), (D) any offense
      involving fraud connected with a case under title 11 (except a
      case under section 157 of this title), fraud in the sale of
      securities, or the felonious manufacture, importation, receiving,
      concealment, buying, selling, or otherwise dealing in a
      controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section
      102 of the Controlled Substances Act), punishable under any law
      of the United States, (E) any act which is indictable under the
      Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act, (F) any act
      which is indictable under the Immigration and Nationality Act,
      section 274 (relating to bringing in and harboring certain
      aliens), section 277 (relating to aiding or assisting certain
      aliens to enter the United States), or section 278 (relating to
      importation of alien for immoral purpose) if the act indictable
      under such section of such Act was committed for the purpose of
      financial gain, or (G) any act that is indictable under any
      provision listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B);
        (2) "State" means any State of the United States, the District
      of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or
      possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or
      any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof;
        (3) "person" includes any individual or entity capable of
      holding a legal or beneficial interest in property;
        (4) "enterprise" includes any individual, partnership,
      corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or
      group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal
      entity;
        (5) "pattern of racketeering activity" requires at least two
      acts of racketeering activity, one of which occurred after the
      effective date of this chapter and the last of which occurred
      within ten years (excluding any period of imprisonment) after the
      commission of a prior act of racketeering activity;
        (6) "unlawful debt" means a debt (A) incurred or contracted in
      gambling activity which was in violation of the law of the United
      States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or which is
      unenforceable under State or Federal law in whole or in part as
      to principal or interest because of the laws relating to usury,
      and (B) which was incurred in connection with the business of
      gambling in violation of the law of the United States, a State or
      political subdivision thereof, or the business of lending money
      or a thing of value at a rate usurious under State or Federal
      law, where the usurious rate is at least twice the enforceable
      rate;
        (7) "racketeering investigator" means any attorney or
      investigator so designated by the Attorney General and charged
      with the duty of enforcing or carrying into effect this chapter;
        (8) "racketeering investigation" means any inquiry conducted by
      any racketeering investigator for the purpose of ascertaining
      whether any person has been involved in any violation of this
      chapter or of any final order, judgment, or decree of any court
      of the United States, duly entered in any case or proceeding
      arising under this chapter;
        (9) "documentary material" includes any book, paper, document,
      record, recording, or other material; and
        (10) "Attorney General" includes the Attorney General of the
      United States, the Deputy Attorney General of the United States,
      the Associate Attorney General of the United States, any
      Assistant Attorney General of the United States, or any employee
      of the Department of Justice or any employee of any department or
      agency of the United States so designated by the Attorney General
      to carry out the powers conferred on the Attorney General by this
      chapter. Any department or agency so designated may use in
      investigations authorized by this chapter either the
      investigative provisions of this chapter or the investigative
      power of such department or agency otherwise conferred by law.

SOURCE

    (Added Pub. L. 91-452, title IX, Sec. 901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84
    Stat. 941; amended Pub. L. 95-575, Sec. 3(c), Nov. 2, 1978, 92
    Stat. 2465; Pub. L. 95-598, title III, Sec. 314(g), Nov. 6, 1978,
    92 Stat. 2677; Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Secs. 901(g), 1020, Oct.
    12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2136, 2143; Pub. L. 98-547, title II, Sec. 205,
    Oct. 25, 1984, 98 Stat. 2770; Pub. L. 99-570, title I, Sec.
    1365(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-35; Pub. L. 99-646, Sec.
    50(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3605; Pub. L. 100-690, title VII,
    Secs. 7013, 7020(c), 7032, 7054, 7514, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat.
    4395, 4396, 4398, 4402, 4489; Pub. L. 101-73, title IX, Sec. 968,
    Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 101-647, title XXXV, Sec.
    3560, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4927; Pub. L. 103-322, title IX,
    Sec. 90104, title XVI, Sec. 160001(f), title XXXIII, Sec.
    330021(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1987, 2037, 2150; Pub. L. 103-
    394, title III, Sec. 312(b), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4140; Pub.
    L. 104-132, title IV, Sec. 433, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1274; Pub.
    L. 104-153, Sec. 3, July 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1386; Pub. L. 104-208,
    div. C, title II, Sec. 202, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-565;
    Pub. L. 104-294, title VI, Secs. 601(b)(3), (i)(3), 604(b)(6), Oct.
    11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3499, 3501, 3506; Pub. L. 107-56, title VIII,
    Sec. 813, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 107-273, div. B,
    title IV, Sec. 4005(f)(1), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1813; Pub. L.
    108-193, Sec. 5(b), Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2879; Pub. L. 108-458,
    title VI, Sec. 6802(e), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3767; Pub. L. 109-
    164, title I, Sec. 103(c), Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3563; Pub. L.
    109-177, title IV, Sec. 403(a), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 243.)

REFERENCES IN TEXT

      Section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act, referred to in par.
    (1)(A), (D), is classified to section 802 of Title 21, Food and
    Drugs.
      The Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act, referred to
    in par. (1)(E), is title II of Pub. L. 91-508, Oct. 26, 1970, 84
    Stat. 1118, which was repealed and reenacted as subchapter II of
    chapter 53 of Title 31, Money and Finance, by Pub. L. 97-258, Sec.
    4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which
    enacted Title 31.
      The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in par. (1)(F),
    is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is
    classified principally to chapter 12 (Sec. 1101 et seq.) of Title
    8, Aliens and Nationality. Sections 274, 277, and 278 of the Act
    are classified to sections 1324, 1327, and 1328 of Title 8,
    respectively. For complete classification of this Act to the Code,
    see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and
    Tables.
      The effective date of this chapter, referred to in par. (5), is
    Oct. 15, 1970.

AMENDMENTS

      2006 - Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 109-177 inserted "section 1960
    (relating to illegal money transmitters)," before "sections 2251".
      Pub. L. 109-164 substituted "1581-1592" for "1581-1591".
      2004 - Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 108-458 inserted "sections 175-178
    (relating to biological weapons), sections 229-229F (relating to
    chemical weapons), section 831 (relating to nuclear materials),"
    before "(C) any act which is indictable under title 29".
      2003 - Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 108-193, which directed amendment of
    par. (1)(A) of this section by substituting "sections 1581-1591
    (relating to peonage, slavery, and trafficking in persons)." for
    "sections 1581-1588 (relating to peonage and slavery)", was
    executed by making the substitution in par. (1)(B) to reflect the
    probable intent of Congress.
      2002 - Par. (1)(G). Pub. L. 107-273 made technical amendment to
    directory language of Pub. L. 107-56. See 2001 Amendment note
    below.
      2001 - Par. (1)(G). Pub. L. 107-56, as amended by Pub. L. 107-
    273, which directed addition of cl. (G) before period at end, was
    executed by making the addition before the semicolon at end to
    reflect the probable intent of Congress.
      1996 - Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 604(b)(6), amended
    directory language of Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 160001(f). See 1994
    Amendment note below.
      Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 601(i)(3), substituted "2260" for "2258".
      Pub. L. 104-208 struck out "if the act indictable under section
    1028 was committed for the purpose of financial gain" before ",
    section 1029", inserted "section 1425 (relating to the procurement
    of citizenship or nationalization unlawfully), section 1426
    (relating to the reproduction of naturalization or citizenship
    papers), section 1427 (relating to the sale of naturalization or
    citizenship papers)," after "section 1344 (relating to financial
    institution fraud),", struck out "if the act indictable under
    section 1542 was committed for the purpose of financial gain"
    before ", section 1543", "if the act indictable under section 1543
    was committed for the purpose of financial gain" before ", section
    1544", "if the act indictable under section 1544 was committed for
    the purpose of financial gain" before ", section 1546", and "if the
    act indictable under section 1546 was committed for the purpose of
    financial gain" before ", sections 1581-1588".
      Pub. L. 104-153 inserted ", section 2318 (relating to trafficking
    in counterfeit labels for phonorecords, computer programs or
    computer program documentation or packaging and copies of motion
    pictures or other audiovisual works), section 2319 (relating to
    criminal infringement of a copyright), section 2319A (relating to
    unauthorized fixation of and trafficking in sound recordings and
    music videos of live musical performances), section 2320 (relating
    to trafficking in goods or services bearing counterfeit marks)"
    after "sections 2314 and 2315 (relating to interstate
    transportation of stolen property)".
      Pub. L. 104-132, Sec. 433(1), (2), inserted "section 1028
    (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with
    identification documents) if the act indictable under section 1028
    was committed for the purpose of financial gain," before "section
    1029" and "section 1542 (relating to false statement in application
    and use of passport) if the act indictable under section 1542 was
    committed for the purpose of financial gain, section 1543 (relating
    to forgery or false use of passport) if the act indictable under
    section 1543 was committed for the purpose of financial gain,
    section 1544 (relating to misuse of passport) if the act indictable
    under section 1544 was committed for the purpose of financial gain,
    section 1546 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and
    other documents) if the act indictable under section 1546 was
    committed for the purpose of financial gain, sections 1581-1588
    (relating to peonage and slavery)," after "section 1513 (relating
    to retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant),".
      Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 601(b)(3), substituted
    "section 157 of this title" for "section 157 of that title".
      Par. (1)(F). Pub. L. 104-132, Sec. 433(3), (4), which directed
    addition of cl. (F) before period at end, was executed by making
    the addition before the semicolon at end to reflect the probable
    intent of Congress.
      1994 - Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330021(1), substituted
    "kidnapping" for "kidnaping".
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 90104, substituted "a controlled substance
    or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled
    Substances Act)" for "narcotic or other dangerous drugs".
      Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 160001(f), as amended by Pub.
    L. 104-294, Sec. 604(b)(6), substituted "2251, 2251A, 2252, and
    2258" for "2251-2252".
      Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 103-394 inserted "(except a case under
    section 157 of that title)" after "title 11".
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 90104, substituted "a controlled substance
    or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled
    Substances Act)" for "narcotic or other dangerous drugs".
      1990 - Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 101-647 substituted "section 1029
    (relating to" for "section 1029 (relative to" and struck out
    "sections 2251 through 2252 (relating to sexual exploitation of
    children)," before ", section 1958".
      1989 - Par. (1). Pub. L. 101-73 inserted "section 1344 (relating
    to financial institution fraud)," after "section 1343 (relating to
    wire fraud),".
      1988 - Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7514, inserted
    "sections 2251 through 2252 (relating to sexual exploitation of
    children),".
      Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7054, inserted ", section 1029 (relative to
    fraud and related activity in connection with access devices)" and
    ", section 1958 (relating to use of interstate commerce facilities
    in the commission of murder-for-hire), sections 2251-2252 (relating
    to sexual exploitation of children)".
      Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7032, substituted "section 2321" for
    "section 2320".
      Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7013, made technical amendment to directory
    language of Pub. L. 99-646. See 1986 Amendment note below.
      Par. (10). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7020(c), inserted "the Associate
    Attorney General of the United States," after "Deputy Attorney
    General of the United States,".
      1986 - Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 99-646, as amended by Pub. L. 100-
    690, Sec. 7013, inserted "section 1512 (relating to tampering with
    a witness, victim, or an informant), section 1513 (relating to
    retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant)," after
    "section 1511 (relating to the obstruction of State or local law
    enforcement),".
      Pub. L. 99-570 inserted "section 1956 (relating to the laundering
    of monetary instruments), section 1957 (relating to engaging in
    monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful
    activity),".
      1984 - Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 98-473, Sec. 1020(1), inserted
    "dealing in obscene matter," after "extortion,".
      Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 98-547 inserted "sections 2312 and 2313
    (relating to interstate transportation of stolen motor vehicles),"
    and "section 2320 (relating to trafficking in certain motor
    vehicles or motor vehicle parts),".
      Pub. L. 98-473, Sec. 1020(2), inserted "sections 1461-1465
    (relating to obscene matter),".
      Par. (1)(E). Pub. L. 98-473, Sec. 901(g), added cl. (E).
      1978 - Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 95-575 inserted "sections 2341-2346
    (relating to trafficking in contraband cigarettes),".
      Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 95-598 substituted "fraud connected with a
    case under title 11" for "bankruptcy fraud".
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT
      Pub. L. 107-273, div. B, title IV, Sec. 4005(f)(1), Nov. 2, 2002,
    116 Stat. 1813, provided that the amendment made by section
    4005(f)(1) is effective Oct. 26, 2001.
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by section 604(b)(6) of Pub. L. 104-294 effective Sept.
    13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104-294, set out as a note
    under section 13 of this title.
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not
    applicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11,
    Bankruptcy, before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-
    394, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 11.
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENTS
      Amendment by Pub. L. 95-598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section
    402(a) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as an Effective Date note
    preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.
      Amendment by Pub. L. 95-575 effective Nov. 2, 1978, see section 4
    of Pub. L. 95-575, set out as an Effective Date note under section
    2341 of this title.
                       SHORT TITLE OF 1984 AMENDMENT
      Section 301 of chapter III (Secs. 301-322) of title II of Pub. L.
    98-473 provided that: "This title [probably means this chapter,
    enacting sections 1589, 1600, 1613a, and 1616 of Title 19, Customs
    Duties and sections 853, 854, and 970 of Title 21, Food and Drugs,
    amending section 1963 of this title and sections 1602, 1605, 1606,
    1607, 1608, 1609, 1610, 1611, 1612, 1613, 1614, 1615, 1618, 1619,
    and 1644 of Title 19, sections 824, 848, and 881 of Title 21, and
    section 524 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and
    repealing section 7607 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] may be
    cited as the 'Comprehensive Forfeiture Act of 1984'."
                       SHORT TITLE OF 1970 AMENDMENT
      Pub. L. 91-452, Sec. 1, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 922, provided in
    part: "That this Act [enacting this section, sections 841 to 848,
    1511, 1623, 1955, 1962 to 1968, 3331 to 3334, 3503, 3504, 3575 to
    3578, and 6001 to 6005 of this title, and section 1826 of Title 28,
    Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amending sections 835, 1073,
    1505, 1954, 2424, 2516, 2517, 3148, 3486, and 3500 of this title,
    sections 15, 87f, 135c, 499m, and 2115 of Title 7, Agriculture,
    section 25 of Title 11, Bankruptcy, section 1820 of Title 12, Banks
    and Banking, sections 49, 77v, 78u, 79r, 80a-41, 80b-9, 155, 717m,
    1271, and 1714 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 825f of
    Title 16, Conservation, section 1333 of Title 19, Customs Duties,
    section 373 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, section 161 of Title 29,
    Labor, section 506 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters,
    sections 405 and 2201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare,
    sections 157 and 362 of Title 45, Railroads, section 1124 of former
    Title 46, Shipping, section 409 of Title 47, Telegraphs,
    Telephones, and Radio telegraphs, sections 9, 43, 46, 916, 1017,
    and 1484 of former Title 49, Transportation, section 792 of Title
    50, War and National Defense, and sections 643a, 1152, 2026, and
    former section 2155 of Title 50, Appendix, repealing sections 837,
    895, 1406, and 2514 of this title, sections 32 and 33 of Title 15;
    sections 4874 and 7493 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section
    827 of former Title 46, sections 47 and 48 of former Title 49, and
    sections 121 to 144 of Title 50, enacting provisions set out as
    notes under this section and sections 841, 1511, 1955, preceding
    3331, preceding 3481, 3504, and 6001 of this title, and repealing
    provisions set out as a note under section 2510 of this title] may
    be cited as the 'Organized Crime Control Act of 1970'."
      Pub. L. 91-452, title IX, Sec. 901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat.
    941, is popularly known as the "Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt
    Organizations Act". See also Short Title note below.
                                SHORT TITLE
      This chapter is popularly known as the "Racketeer Influenced and
    Corrupt Organizations Act".
                             SAVINGS PROVISION
      Amendment by section 314 of Pub. L. 95-598 not to affect the
    application of chapter 9 (Sec. 151 et seq.), chapter 96 (Sec. 1961
    et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or 3284 of this title to any act
    of any person (1) committed before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed
    after Oct. 1, 1979, in connection with a case commenced before such
    date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as a note
    preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.
                               SEPARABILITY
      Section 1301 of Pub. L. 91-452 provided that: "If the provisions
    of any part of this Act [see Short Title of 1970 Amendment note set
    out above] or the application thereof to any person or
    circumstances be held invalid, the provisions of the other parts
    and their application to other persons or circumstances shall not
    be affected thereby."
              CONGRESSIONAL STATEMENT OF FINDINGS AND PURPOSE
      Section 1 of Pub. L. 91-452 provided in part that:
      "The Congress finds that (1) organized crime in the United States
    is a highly sophisticated, diversified, and widespread activity
    that annually drains billions of dollars from America's economy by
    unlawful conduct and the illegal use of force, fraud, and
    corruption; (2) organized crime derives a major portion of its
    power through money obtained from such illegal endeavors as
    syndicated gambling, loan sharking, the theft and fencing of
    property, the importation and distribution of narcotics and other
    dangerous drugs, and other forms of social exploitation; (3) this
    money and power are increasingly used to infiltrate and corrupt
    legitimate business and labor unions and to subvert and corrupt our
    democratic processes; (4) organized crime activities in the United
    States weaken the stability of the Nation's economic system, harm
    innocent investors and competing organizations, interfere with free
    competition, seriously burden interstate and foreign commerce,
    threaten the domestic security, and undermine the general welfare
    of the Nation and its citizens; and (5) organized crime continues
    to grow because of defects in the evidence-gathering process of the
    law inhibiting the development of the legally admissible evidence
    necessary to bring criminal and other sanctions or remedies to bear
    on the unlawful activities of those engaged in organized crime and
    because the sanctions and remedies available to the Government are
    unnecessarily limited in scope and impact.
      "It is the purpose of this Act [see Short Title of 1970 Amendment
    note above] to seek the eradication of organized crime in the
    United States by strengthening the legal tools in the evidence-
    gathering process, by establishing new penal prohibitions, and by
    providing enhanced sanctions and new remedies to deal with the
    unlawful activities of those engaged in organized crime."
    LIBERAL CONSTRUCTION OF PROVISIONS; SUPERSEDURE OF FEDERAL OR STATE
          LAWS; AUTHORITY OF ATTORNEYS REPRESENTING UNITED STATES
      Section 904 of title IX of Pub. L. 91-452 provided that:
      "(a) The provisions of this title [enacting this chapter and
    amending sections 1505, 2516, and 2517 of this title] shall be
    liberally construed to effectuate its remedial purposes.
      "(b) Nothing in this title shall supersede any provision of
    Federal, State, or other law imposing criminal penalties or
    affording civil remedies in addition to those provided for in this
    title.
      "(c) Nothing contained in this title shall impair the authority
    of any attorney representing the United States to -
        "(1) lay before any grand jury impaneled by any district court
      of the United States any evidence concerning any alleged
      racketeering violation of law;
        "(2) invoke the power of any such court to compel the
      production of any evidence before any such grand jury; or
        "(3) institute any proceeding to enforce any order or process
      issued in execution of such power or to punish disobedience of
      any such order or process by any person."
    PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON ORGANIZED CRIME; TAKING OF TESTIMONY AND
                            RECEIPT OF EVIDENCE
      Pub. L. 98-368, July 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 490, provided for the
    Commission established by Ex. Ord. No. 12435, formerly set out
    below, authority relating to taking of testimony, receipt of
    evidence, subpoena power, testimony of persons in custody,
    immunity, service of process, witness fees, access to other records
    and information, Federal protection for members and staff, closure
    of meetings, rules, and procedures, for the period of July 17,
    1984, until the earlier of 2 years or the expiration of the
    Commission.

EXECUTIVE ORDER

                         EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 12435
      Ex. Ord. No. 12435, July 28, 1983, 48 F.R. 34723, as amended Ex.
    Ord. No. 12507, Mar. 22, 1985, 50 F.R. 11835, which established and
    provided for the administration of the President's Commission on
    Organized Crime, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12610, Sept. 30, 1987,
    52 F.R. 36901, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the
    Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5,
    Government Organization and Employees.

FOOTNOTE

    (!1) So in original.
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