All Agencies, Latest Month All Agencies, Current FY Geographic Distribution
of Convictions for
All Agencies, FY 2014
18 Prosecutions
in August 2014
318 Prosecutions
in Fiscal Year 2014
30 Convictions
in August 2014
274 Convictions
in Fiscal Year 2014

CITE

    18 USC Sec. 1956                                            01/05/2009

EXPCITE

    TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
    PART I - CRIMES
    CHAPTER 95 - RACKETEERING

HEAD

    Sec. 1956. Laundering of monetary instruments

STATUTE

      (a)(1) Whoever, knowing that the property involved in a financial
    transaction represents the proceeds of some form of unlawful
    activity, conducts or attempts to conduct such a financial
    transaction which in fact involves the proceeds of specified
    unlawful activity -
        (A)(i) with the intent to promote the carrying on of specified
      unlawful activity; or
        (ii) with intent to engage in conduct constituting a violation
      of section 7201 or 7206 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; or
        (B) knowing that the transaction is designed in whole or in
      part -
          (i) to conceal or disguise the nature, the location, the
        source, the ownership, or the control of the proceeds of
        specified unlawful activity; or
          (ii) to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State
        or Federal law,
    shall be sentenced to a fine of not more than $500,000 or twice the
    value of the property involved in the transaction, whichever is
    greater, or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.
    For purposes of this paragraph, a financial transaction shall be
    considered to be one involving the proceeds of specified unlawful
    activity if it is part of a set of parallel or dependent
    transactions, any one of which involves the proceeds of specified
    unlawful activity, and all of which are part of a single plan or
    arrangement.
      (2) Whoever transports, transmits, or transfers, or attempts to
    transport, transmit, or transfer a monetary instrument or funds
    from a place in the United States to or through a place outside the
    United States or to a place in the United States from or through a
    place outside the United States -
        (A) with the intent to promote the carrying on of specified
      unlawful activity; or
        (B) knowing that the monetary instrument or funds involved in
      the transportation, transmission, or transfer represent the
      proceeds of some form of unlawful activity and knowing that such
      transportation, transmission, or transfer is designed in whole or
      in part -
          (i) to conceal or disguise the nature, the location, the
        source, the ownership, or the control of the proceeds of
        specified unlawful activity; or
          (ii) to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State
        or Federal law,
    shall be sentenced to a fine of not more than $500,000 or twice the
    value of the monetary instrument or funds involved in the
    transportation, transmission, or transfer, whichever is greater, or
    imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both. For the
    purpose of the offense described in subparagraph (B), the
    defendant's knowledge may be established by proof that a law
    enforcement officer represented the matter specified in
    subparagraph (B) as true, and the defendant's subsequent statements
    or actions indicate that the defendant believed such
    representations to be true.
      (3) Whoever, with the intent -
        (A) to promote the carrying on of specified unlawful activity;
        (B) to conceal or disguise the nature, location, source,
      ownership, or control of property believed to be the proceeds of
      specified unlawful activity; or
        (C) to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State or
      Federal law,
    conducts or attempts to conduct a financial transaction involving
    property represented to be the proceeds of specified unlawful
    activity, or property used to conduct or facilitate specified
    unlawful activity, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned
    for not more than 20 years, or both. For purposes of this paragraph
    and paragraph (2), the term "represented" means any representation
    made by a law enforcement officer or by another person at the
    direction of, or with the approval of, a Federal official
    authorized to investigate or prosecute violations of this section.
      (b) Penalties. -
        (1) In general. - Whoever conducts or attempts to conduct a
      transaction described in subsection (a)(1) or (a)(3), or section
      1957, or a transportation, transmission, or transfer described in
      subsection (a)(2), is liable to the United States for a civil
      penalty of not more than the greater of -
          (A) the value of the property, funds, or monetary instruments
        involved in the transaction; or
          (B) $10,000.
        (2) Jurisdiction over foreign persons. - For purposes of
      adjudicating an action filed or enforcing a penalty ordered under
      this section, the district courts shall have jurisdiction over
      any foreign person, including any financial institution
      authorized under the laws of a foreign country, against whom the
      action is brought, if service of process upon the foreign person
      is made under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or the laws of
      the country in which the foreign person is found, and -
          (A) the foreign person commits an offense under subsection
        (a) involving a financial transaction that occurs in whole or
        in part in the United States;
          (B) the foreign person converts, to his or her own use,
        property in which the United States has an ownership interest
        by virtue of the entry of an order of forfeiture by a court of
        the United States; or
          (C) the foreign person is a financial institution that
        maintains a bank account at a financial institution in the
        United States.
        (3) Court authority over assets. - A court may issue a pretrial
      restraining order or take any other action necessary to ensure
      that any bank account or other property held by the defendant in
      the United States is available to satisfy a judgment under this
      section.
        (4) Federal receiver. -
          (A) In general. - A court may appoint a Federal Receiver, in
        accordance with subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, to collect,
        marshal, and take custody, control, and possession of all
        assets of the defendant, wherever located, to satisfy a civil
        judgment under this subsection, a forfeiture judgment under
        section 981 or 982, or a criminal sentence under section 1957
        or subsection (a) of this section, including an order of
        restitution to any victim of a specified unlawful activity.
          (B) Appointment and authority. - A Federal Receiver described
        in subparagraph (A) -
            (i) may be appointed upon application of a Federal
          prosecutor or a Federal or State regulator, by the court
          having jurisdiction over the defendant in the case;
            (ii) shall be an officer of the court, and the powers of
          the Federal Receiver shall include the powers set out in
          section 754 of title 28, United States Code; and
            (iii) shall have standing equivalent to that of a Federal
          prosecutor for the purpose of submitting requests to obtain
          information regarding the assets of the defendant -
              (I) from the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the
            Department of the Treasury; or
              (II) from a foreign country pursuant to a mutual legal
            assistance treaty, multilateral agreement, or other
            arrangement for international law enforcement assistance,
            provided that such requests are in accordance with the
            policies and procedures of the Attorney General.
      (c) As used in this section -
        (1) the term "knowing that the property involved in a financial
      transaction represents the proceeds of some form of unlawful
      activity" means that the person knew the property involved in the
      transaction represented proceeds from some form, though not
      necessarily which form, of activity that constitutes a felony
      under State, Federal, or foreign law, regardless of whether or
      not such activity is specified in paragraph (7);
        (2) the term "conducts" includes initiating, concluding, or
      participating in initiating, or concluding a transaction;
        (3) the term "transaction" includes a purchase, sale, loan,
      pledge, gift, transfer, delivery, or other disposition, and with
      respect to a financial institution includes a deposit,
      withdrawal, transfer between accounts, exchange of currency,
      loan, extension of credit, purchase or sale of any stock, bond,
      certificate of deposit, or other monetary instrument, use of a
      safe deposit box, or any other payment, transfer, or delivery by,
      through, or to a financial institution, by whatever means
      effected;
        (4) the term "financial transaction" means (A) a transaction
      which in any way or degree affects interstate or foreign commerce
      (i) involving the movement of funds by wire or other means or
      (ii) involving one or more monetary instruments, or (iii)
      involving the transfer of title to any real property, vehicle,
      vessel, or aircraft, or (B) a transaction involving the use of a
      financial institution which is engaged in, or the activities of
      which affect, interstate or foreign commerce in any way or
      degree;
        (5) the term "monetary instruments" means (i) coin or currency
      of the United States or of any other country, travelers' checks,
      personal checks, bank checks, and money orders, or (ii)
      investment securities or negotiable instruments, in bearer form
      or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon
      delivery;
        (6) the term "financial institution" includes -
          (A) any financial institution, as defined in section
        5312(a)(2) of title 31, United States Code, or the regulations
        promulgated thereunder; and
          (B) any foreign bank, as defined in section 1 of the
        International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3101);
        (7) the term "specified unlawful activity" means -
          (A) any act or activity constituting an offense listed in
        section 1961(1) of this title except an act which is indictable
        under subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31;
          (B) with respect to a financial transaction occurring in
        whole or in part in the United States, an offense against a
        foreign nation involving -
            (i) the manufacture, importation, sale, or distribution of
          a controlled substance (as such term is defined for the
          purposes of the Controlled Substances Act);
            (ii) murder, kidnapping, robbery, extortion, destruction of
          property by means of explosive or fire, or a crime of
          violence (as defined in section 16);
            (iii) fraud, or any scheme or attempt to defraud, by or
          against a foreign bank (as defined in paragraph 7 of section
          1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978)); (!1)
            (iv) bribery of a public official, or the misappropriation,
          theft, or embezzlement of public funds by or for the benefit
          of a public official;
            (v) smuggling or export control violations involving -
              (I) an item controlled on the United States Munitions
            List established under section 38 of the Arms Export
            Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778); or
              (II) an item controlled under regulations under the
            Export Administration Regulations (15 C.F.R. Parts 730-
            774);
            (vi) an offense with respect to which the United States
          would be obligated by a multilateral treaty, either to
          extradite the alleged offender or to submit the case for
          prosecution, if the offender were found within the territory
          of the United States; or
            (vii) trafficking in persons, selling or buying of
          children, sexual exploitation of children, or transporting,
          recruiting or harboring a person, including a child, for
          commercial sex acts;
          (C) any act or acts constituting a continuing criminal
        enterprise, as that term is defined in section 408 of the
        Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 848);
          (D) an offense under section 32 (relating to the destruction
        of aircraft), section 37 (relating to violence at international
        airports), section 115 (relating to influencing, impeding, or
        retaliating against a Federal official by threatening or
        injuring a family member), section 152 (relating to concealment
        of assets; false oaths and claims; bribery), section 175c
        (relating to the variola virus), section 215 (relating to
        commissions or gifts for procuring loans), section 351
        (relating to congressional or Cabinet officer assassination),
        any of sections 500 through 503 (relating to certain
        counterfeiting offenses), section 513 (relating to securities
        of States and private entities), section 541 (relating to goods
        falsely classified), section 542 (relating to entry of goods by
        means of false statements), section 545 (relating to smuggling
        goods into the United States), section 549 (relating to
        removing goods from Customs custody), section 554 (relating to
        smuggling goods from the United States), section 641 (relating
        to public money, property, or records), section 656 (relating
        to theft, embezzlement, or misapplication by bank officer or
        employee), section 657 (relating to lending, credit, and
        insurance institutions), section 658 (relating to property
        mortgaged or pledged to farm credit agencies), section 666
        (relating to theft or bribery concerning programs receiving
        Federal funds), section 793, 794, or 798 (relating to
        espionage), section 831 (relating to prohibited transactions
        involving nuclear materials), section 844(f) or (i) (relating
        to destruction by explosives or fire of Government property or
        property affecting interstate or foreign commerce), section 875
        (relating to interstate communications), section 922(l)
        (relating to the unlawful importation of firearms), section
        924(n) (relating to firearms trafficking), section 956
        (relating to conspiracy to kill, kidnap, maim, or injure
        certain property in a foreign country), section 1005 (relating
        to fraudulent bank entries), 1006 (!2) (relating to fraudulent
        Federal credit institution entries), 1007 (!2) (relating to
        Federal Deposit Insurance transactions), 1014 (!2) (relating to
        fraudulent loan or credit applications), section 1030 (relating
        to computer fraud and abuse), 1032 (!2) (relating to
        concealment of assets from conservator, receiver, or
        liquidating agent of financial institution), section 1111
        (relating to murder), section 1114 (relating to murder of
        United States law enforcement officials), section 1116
        (relating to murder of foreign officials, official guests, or
        internationally protected persons), section 1201 (relating to
        kidnaping), section 1203 (relating to hostage taking), section
        1361 (relating to willful injury of Government property),
        section 1363 (relating to destruction of property within the
        special maritime and territorial jurisdiction), section 1708
        (theft from the mail), section 1751 (relating to Presidential
        assassination), section 2113 or 2114 (relating to bank and
        postal robbery and theft), section 2252A (relating to child
        pornography) where the child pornography contains a visual
        depiction of an actual minor engaging in sexually explicit
        conduct, section 2260 (production of certain child pornography
        for importation into the United States), section 2280 (relating
        to violence against maritime navigation), section 2281
        (relating to violence against maritime fixed platforms),
        section 2319 (relating to copyright infringement), section 2320
        (relating to trafficking in counterfeit goods and services),
        section 2332 (relating to terrorist acts abroad against United
        States nationals), section 2332a (relating to use of weapons of
        mass destruction), section 2332b (relating to international
        terrorist acts transcending national boundaries), section 2332g
        (relating to missile systems designed to destroy aircraft),
        section 2332h (relating to radiological dispersal devices),
        section 2339A or 2339B (relating to providing material support
        to terrorists), section 2339C (relating to financing of
        terrorism), or section 2339D (relating to receiving military-
        type training from a foreign terrorist organization) of this
        title, section 46502 of title 49, United States Code, a felony
        violation of the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988
        (relating to precursor and essential chemicals), section 590 of
        the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1590) (relating to aviation
        smuggling), section 422 of the Controlled Substances Act
        (relating to transportation of drug paraphernalia), section
        38(c) (relating to criminal violations) of the Arms Export
        Control Act, section 11 (relating to violations) of the Export
        Administration Act of 1979, section 206 (relating to penalties)
        of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, section 16
        (relating to offenses and punishment) of the Trading with the
        Enemy Act, any felony violation of section 15 of the Food and
        Nutrition Act of 2008 (relating to supplemental nutrition
        assistance program benefits fraud) involving a quantity of
        benefits having a value of not less than $5,000, any violation
        of section 543(a)(1) of the Housing Act of 1949 (relating to
        equity skimming), any felony violation of the Foreign Agents
        Registration Act of 1938, any felony violation of the Foreign
        Corrupt Practices Act, or section 92 of the Atomic Energy Act
        of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2122) (relating to prohibitions governing
        atomic weapons) (!3)
                           ENVIRONMENTAL CRIMES
          (E) a felony violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control
        Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), the Ocean Dumping Act (33 U.S.C.
        1401 et seq.), the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (33
        U.S.C. 1901 et seq.), the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C.
        300f et seq.), or the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act
        (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.); or
          (F) any act or activity constituting an offense involving a
        Federal health care offense;
        (8) the term "State" includes a State of the United States, the
      District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or
      possession of the United States.
      (d) Nothing in this section shall supersede any provision of
    Federal, State, or other law imposing criminal penalties or
    affording civil remedies in addition to those provided for in this
    section.
      (e) Violations of this section may be investigated by such
    components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may
    direct, and by such components of the Department of the Treasury as
    the Secretary of the Treasury may direct, as appropriate, and, with
    respect to offenses over which the Department of Homeland Security
    has jurisdiction, by such components of the Department of Homeland
    Security as the Secretary of Homeland Security may direct, and,
    with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal
    Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of
    the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security,
    and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an
    agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the
    Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Postal Service,
    and the Attorney General. Violations of this section involving
    offenses described in paragraph (c)(7)(E) may be investigated by
    such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney
    General may direct, and the National Enforcement Investigations
    Center of the Environmental Protection Agency.
      (f) There is extraterritorial jurisdiction over the conduct
    prohibited by this section if -
        (1) the conduct is by a United States citizen or, in the case
      of a non-United States citizen, the conduct occurs in part in the
      United States; and
        (2) the transaction or series of related transactions involves
      funds or monetary instruments of a value exceeding $10,000.
      (g) Notice of Conviction of Financial Institutions. - If any
    financial institution or any officer, director, or employee of any
    financial institution has been found guilty of an offense under
    this section, section 1957 or 1960 of this title, or section 5322
    or 5324 of title 31, the Attorney General shall provide written
    notice of such fact to the appropriate regulatory agency for the
    financial institution.
      (h) Any person who conspires to commit any offense defined in
    this section or section 1957 shall be subject to the same penalties
    as those prescribed for the offense the commission of which was the
    object of the conspiracy.
      (i) Venue. - (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a
    prosecution for an offense under this section or section 1957 may
    be brought in -
        (A) any district in which the financial or monetary transaction
      is conducted; or
        (B) any district where a prosecution for the underlying
      specified unlawful activity could be brought, if the defendant
      participated in the transfer of the proceeds of the specified
      unlawful activity from that district to the district where the
      financial or monetary transaction is conducted.
      (2) A prosecution for an attempt or conspiracy offense under this
    section or section 1957 may be brought in the district where venue
    would lie for the completed offense under paragraph (1), or in any
    other district where an act in furtherance of the attempt or
    conspiracy took place.
      (3) For purposes of this section, a transfer of funds from 1
    place to another, by wire or any other means, shall constitute a
    single, continuing transaction. Any person who conducts (as that
    term is defined in subsection (c)(2)) any portion of the
    transaction may be charged in any district in which the transaction
    takes place.

SOURCE

    (Added Pub. L. 99-570, title I, Sec. 1352(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100
    Stat. 3207-18; amended Pub. L. 100-690, title VI, Secs. 6183, 6465,
    6466, 6469(a)(1), 6471(a), (b), title VII, Sec. 7031, Nov. 18,
    1988, 102 Stat. 4354, 4375, 4377, 4378, 4398; Pub. L. 101-647,
    title I, Secs. 105-108, title XII, Sec. 1205(j), title XIV, Secs.
    1402, 1404, title XXV, Sec. 2506, title XXXV, Sec. 3557, Nov. 29,
    1990, 104 Stat. 4791, 4792, 4831, 4835, 4862, 4927; Pub. L. 102-
    550, title XV, Secs. 1504(c), 1524, 1526(a), 1527(a), 1530, 1531,
    1534, 1536, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4055, 4064-4067; Pub. L. 103-
    322, title XXXII, Sec. 320104(b), title XXXIII, Secs. 330008(2),
    330011(l), 330012, 330019, 330021(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat.
    2111, 2142, 2145, 2146, 2149, 2150; Pub. L. 103-325, title IV,
    Secs. 411(c)(2)(E), 413(c)(1), (d), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2253-
    2255; Pub. L. 104-132, title VII, Sec. 726, Apr. 24, 1996, 110
    Stat. 1301; Pub. L. 104-191, title II, Sec. 246, Aug. 21, 1996, 110
    Stat. 2018; Pub. L. 104-294, title VI, Secs. 601(f)(6), 604(b)(38),
    Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3499, 3509; Pub. L. 106-569, title VII,
    Sec. 709(a), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3018; Pub. L. 107-56, title
    III, Secs. 315, 317, 318, 376, title VIII, Sec. 805(b), title X,
    Sec. 1004, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 308, 310, 311, 342, 378, 392;
    Pub. L. 107-273, div. B, title IV, Secs. 4002(a)(11), (b)(5),
    (c)(2), 4005(d)(1), (e), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1807, 1809, 1812,
    1813; Pub. L. 108-458, title VI, Sec. 6909, Dec. 17, 2004, 118
    Stat. 3774; Pub. L. 109-164, title I, Sec. 103(b), Jan. 10, 2006,
    119 Stat. 3563; Pub. L. 109-177, title III, Sec. 311(c), title IV,
    Secs. 403(b), (c)(1), 405, 406(a)(2), 409, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat.
    242-244, 246; Pub. L. 110-234, title IV, Secs. 4002(b)(1)(B), (D),
    (2)(M), 4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096,
    1097, 1109; Pub. L. 110-246, Sec. 4(a), title IV, Secs.
    4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(M), 4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii), June 18,
    2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1858, 1870; Pub. L. 110-358, title II,
    Sec. 202, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4003.)

REFERENCES IN TEXT

      Sections 7201 and 7206 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,
    referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii), are classified, respectively,
    to sections 7201 and 7206 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.
      The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec.
    (b)(2), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and
    Judicial Procedure.
      The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec.
    (c)(7)(B)(i), (D), is title II of Pub. L. 91-513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84
    Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to
    subchapter I (Sec. 801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and
    Drugs. Section 422 of the Act is classified to section 863 of Title
    21. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short
    Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.
      The Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988, referred to
    in subsec. (c)(7)(D), is subtitle A (Sec. 6051-6061) of title VI of
    Pub. L. 100-690, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4312. For complete
    classification of subtitle A to the Code, see Short Title of 1988
    Amendment note set out under section 801 of Title 21, Food and
    Drugs, and Tables.
      Section 38(c) of the Arms Export Control Act, referred to in
    subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 2778(c) of Title 22,
    Foreign Relations and Intercourse.
      Section 11 of the Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to
    in subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 2410 of Title 50,
    Appendix, War and National Defense.
      Section 206 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act,
    referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 1705 of
    Title 50.
      Section 16 of the Trading with the Enemy Act, referred to in
    subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 16 of Title 50,
    Appendix.
      Section 15 of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in
    subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 2024 of Title 7,
    Agriculture.
      Section 543(a)(1) of the Housing Act of 1949, referred to in
    subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 1490s(a)(1) of Title
    42, The Public Health and Welfare.
      The Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, referred to in
    subsec. (c)(7)(D), is act June 8, 1938, ch. 327, 52 Stat. 631, as
    amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (Sec.  611
    et seq.) of chapter 11 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and
    Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code,
    see Short Title note set out under section 611 of Title 22 and
    Tables.
      The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, referred to in subsec.
    (c)(7)(D), probably means the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of
    1977, title I of Pub. L. 95-213, Dec. 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 1494, as
    amended, which enacted sections 78dd-1 to 78dd-3 of Title 15,
    Commerce and Trade, and amended sections 78m and 78ff of Title 15.
    For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short
    Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section 78a of Title 15
    and Tables.
      The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, referred to in subsec.
    (c)(7)(E), is act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, as amended generally by
    Pub. L. 92-500, Sec. 2, Oct. 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 816, which is
    classified generally to chapter 26 (Sec. 1251 et seq.) of Title 33,
    Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of
    this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section
    1251 of Title 33 and Tables.
      The Ocean Dumping Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(E), probably
    means title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries
    Act of 1972, Pub. L. 92-532, Oct. 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 1053, as
    amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (Sec. 1411
    et seq.) of chapter 27 of Title 33. For complete classification of
    title I to the Code, see Tables.
      The Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships, referred to in subsec.
    (c)(7)(E), is Pub. L. 96-478, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2297, as
    amended, which is classified principally to chapter 33 (Sec. 1901
    et seq.) of Title 33. For complete classification of this Act to
    the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1901 of Title
    33 and Tables.
      The Safe Drinking Water Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(E), is
    title XIV of act July 1, 1944, as added Dec. 16, 1974, Pub. L. 93-
    523, Sec. 2(a), 88 Stat. 1660, as amended, which is classified
    generally to subchapter XII (Sec. 300f et seq.) of chapter 6A of
    Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete
    classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set
    out under section 201 of Title 42 and Tables.
      The Resources Conservation and Recovery Act, referred to in
    subsec. (c)(7)(E), probably means the Resource Conservation and
    Recovery Act of 1976, Pub. L. 94-580, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2796,
    as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 82 (Sec. 6901
    et seq.) of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to
    the Code, see Short Title of 1976 Amendment note set out under
    section 6901 of Title 42 and Tables.

CODIFICATION

      Pub. L. 110-234 and Pub. L. 110-246 made identical amendments to
    this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110-234 were repealed by
    section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110-246.

AMENDMENTS

      2008 - Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 110-358 inserted "section 2252A
    (relating to child pornography) where the child pornography
    contains a visual depiction of an actual minor engaging in sexually
    explicit conduct, section 2260 (production of certain child
    pornography for importation into the United States)," before
    "section 2280".
      Pub. L. 110-246, Sec. 4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii), substituted
    "benefits" for "coupons".
      Pub. L. 110-246, Sec. 4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(M), substituted
    "Food and Nutrition Act of 2008" for "Food Stamp Act of 1977" and
    "supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits" for "food
    stamp".
      2006 - Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109-177, Sec. 405, inserted last
    sentence.
      Subsec. (b)(3), (4)(A). Pub. L. 109-177, Sec. 406(a)(2), struck
    out "described in paragraph (2)" after "A court".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(vii). Pub. L. 109-164 added cl. (vii).
      Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 109-177, Sec. 409, inserted ", section
    2339C (relating to financing of terrorism), or section 2339D
    (relating to receiving military-type training from a foreign
    terrorist organization)" after "section 2339A or 2339B (relating to
    providing material support to terrorists)" and struck out "or"
    before "section 2339A or 2339B".
      Pub. L. 109-177, Sec. 403(b), which directed amendment of subsec.
    (c)(7)(D) by substituting "any felony violation of the Foreign
    Corrupt Practices Act" for "or any felony violation of the Foreign
    Corrupt Practices Act", could not be executed because of the
    amendment by Pub. L. 108-458, Sec. 6909(3). See 2004 Amendment note
    below.
      Pub. L. 109-177, Sec. 311(c), inserted "section 554 (relating to
    smuggling goods from the United States)," before "section 641
    (relating to public money, property, or records),".
      Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109-177, Sec. 403(c)(1), amended subsec. (e)
    generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows:
    "Violations of this section may be investigated by such components
    of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct,
    and by such components of the Department of the Treasury as the
    Secretary of the Treasury may direct, as appropriate and, with
    respect to offenses over which the United States Postal Service has
    jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of the
    Secretary of the Treasury and the Postal Service shall be exercised
    in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the
    Secretary of the Treasury, the Postal Service, and the Attorney
    General. Violations of this section involving offenses described in
    paragraph (c)(7)(E) may be investigated by such components of the
    Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and the
    National Enforcement Investigations Center of the Environmental
    Protection Agency."
      2004 - Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 108-458, Sec. 6909(3), struck
    out "or" after "any felony violation of the Foreign Agents
    Registration Act of 1938," and substituted ", or section 92 of the
    Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2122) (relating to
    prohibitions governing atomic weapons)" for semicolon at end.
      Pub. L. 108-458, Sec. 6909(2), which directed the insertion of
    "section 2332g (relating to missile systems designed to destroy
    aircraft), section 2332h (relating to radiological dispersal
    devices)," after "section 2332(b) (relating to international
    terrorist acts transcending national boundaries)," was executed by
    making the insertion after text which contained the words "section
    2332b" rather than "section 2332(b)", to reflect the probable
    intent of Congress.
      Pub. L. 108-458, Sec. 6909(1), inserted "section 175c (relating
    to the variola virus)," before "section 215".
      2002 - Subsec. (c)(6)(B). Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4005(d)(1),
    substituted semicolon for period at end.
      Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4002(b)(5)(A),
    realigned margins.
      Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4005(e), repealed Pub.
    L. 107-56, Sec. 805(b). See 2001 Amendment note below.
      Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4002(c)(2), substituted "services)," for
    "services),," and "Code," for "Code,,".
      Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4002(b)(5)(B), struck out "or" at end.
      Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4002(a)(11), made technical corrections to
    directory language of Pub. L. 104-132, Sec. 726(2). See 1996
    Amendment note below.
      Subsec. (c)(7)(E). Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4002(b)(5)(C),
    substituted "; or" for period at end.
      Subsec. (c)(7)(F). Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4002(b)(5)(D),
    substituted "any" for "Any" and semicolon for period at end.
      2001 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 317, inserted subsec.
    heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted
    heading and inserted ", or section 1957" after "or (a)(3)" in
    introductory provisions, redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as
    subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, of par. (1), realigned margins,
    and added pars. (2) to (4).
      Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 318, added par. (6) and
    struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: "the term
    'financial institution' has the definition given that term in
    section 5312(a)(2) of title 31, United States Code, or the
    regulations promulgated thereunder;".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(B). Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 315(1), substituted
    "destruction of property by means of explosive or fire, or a crime
    of violence (as defined in section 16)" for "or destruction of
    property by means of explosive or fire" in cl. (ii), inserted a
    closing parenthesis after "1978" in cl. (iii), and added cls. (iv)
    to (vi).
      Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 376, inserted "or 2339B"
    after "2339A". Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 805(b), which amended subpar.
    (D) identically, was repealed by Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4005(e).
      Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 315(2), inserted "section 541 (relating to
    goods falsely classified)," before "section 542", "section 922(l)
    (relating to the unlawful importation of firearms), section 924(n)
    (relating to firearms trafficking)," before "section 956", "section
    1030 (relating to computer fraud and abuse)," before "1032", and
    "any felony violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of
    1938," before "or any felony violation of the Foreign Corrupt
    Practices Act".
      Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 107-56, Sec. 1004, added subsec. (i).
      2000 - Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 106-569 inserted "any violation
    of section 543(a)(1) of the Housing Act of 1949 (relating to equity
    skimming)," after "coupons having a value of not less than
    $5,000,".
      1996 - Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 104-132, Sec. 726(1),
    amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as
    follows: "kidnapping, robbery, or extortion; or".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 601(f)(6), struck
    out one closing parenthesis after "1978".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 604(b)(38), amended
    directory language of Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320104(b). See 1994
    Amendment note below.
      Pub. L. 104-132, Sec. 726(2), as amended by Pub. L. 107-273, Sec.
    4002(a)(11), inserted "section 32 (relating to the destruction of
    aircraft), section 37 (relating to violence at international
    airports), section 115 (relating to influencing, impeding, or
    retaliating against a Federal official by threatening or injuring a
    family member)," after "an offense under", "section 351 (relating
    to congressional or Cabinet officer assassination)," after "section
    215 (relating to commissions or gifts for procuring loans),",
    "section 831 (relating to prohibited transactions involving nuclear
    materials), section 844(f) or (i) (relating to destruction by
    explosives or fire of Government property or property affecting
    interstate or foreign commerce)," after "798 (relating to
    espionage),", "section 956 (relating to conspiracy to kill, kidnap,
    maim, or injure certain property in a foreign country)," after
    "section 875 (relating to interstate communications),", "section
    1111 (relating to murder), section 1114 (relating to murder of
    United States law enforcement officials), section 1116 (relating to
    murder of foreign officials, official guests, or internationally
    protected persons)," after "1032 (relating to concealment of assets
    from conservator, receiver, or liquidating agent of financial
    institution),", "section 1361 (relating to willful injury of
    Government property), section 1363 (relating to destruction of
    property within the special maritime and territorial
    jurisdiction)," after "section 1203 (relating to hostage taking),",
    "section 1751 (relating to Presidential assassination)," after
    "1708 (theft from the mail),", "section 2280 (relating to violence
    against maritime navigation), section 2281 (relating to violence
    against maritime fixed platforms)," after "2114 (relating to bank
    and postal robbery and theft),", and substituted "section 2320" for
    "or section 2320" and ", section 2332 (relating to terrorist acts
    abroad against United States nationals), section 2332a (relating to
    use of weapons of mass destruction), section 2332b (relating to
    international terrorist acts transcending national boundaries), or
    section 2339A (relating to providing material support to
    terrorists) of this title, section 46502 of title 49, United States
    Code," for "of this title".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(F). Pub. L. 104-191 added subpar. (F).
      1994 - Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103-325, Sec. 413(c)(1)(A)(ii),
    substituted "transfer" for "transfer." in concluding provisions and
    two times in subpar. (B).
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330019(a)(3), and Pub. L. 103-325, Sec.
    413(c)(1)(A)(i), amended par. (2) identically, inserting "not more
    than" before "$500,000" in concluding provisions.
      Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103-325, Sec. 413(c)(1)(B), inserted "or
    (a)(3)" after "(a)(1)" and substituted "transfer" for "transfer."
      Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330021(1),
    substituted "kidnapping" for "kidnaping".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330019(a)(1), and
    Pub. L. 103-325, Sec. 413(c)(1)(C), each amended cl. (iii) by
    inserting a closing parenthesis after "1978".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330019(b), and Pub. L.
    103-325, Sec. 413(c)(1)(D), amended subpar. (D) identically,
    substituting "section 15 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977" for
    "section 9(c) of the Food Stamp Act of 1977".
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330011(l), and Pub. L. 103-325, Sec.
    413(d), made identical amendments repealing Pub. L. 101-647, Sec.
    3557(2)(E). See 1990 Amendment note below.
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320104(b), as amended by Pub. L. 104-294,
    Sec. 604(b)(38), substituted "section 2319 (relating to copyright
    infringement), or section 2320 (relating to trafficking in
    counterfeit goods and services)," for "or section 2319 (relating to
    copyright infringement)".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(E). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330012, and Pub. L. 103-
    325, Sec. 413(c)(1)(E), amended subpar. (E) identically, striking
    out second period at end.
      Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330008(2), and Pub. L. 103-
    325, Sec. 413(c)(1)(F), amended subsec. (e) identically,
    substituting "Environmental Protection Agency" for "Evironmental
    Protection Agency".
      Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103-325, Sec. 411(c)(2)(E), in subsec. (g)
    relating to notice of conviction of financial institutions,
    substituted "section 5322 or 5324 of title 31" for "section 5322 of
    title 31".
      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330019(a)(2), and Pub. L. 103-325, Sec.
    413(c)(1)(G), made identical amendments redesignating subsec. (g)
    relating to penalty for money laundering conspiracies as (h).
      Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330019(a)(2), and Pub. L. 103-
    325, Sec. 413(c)(1)(G), made identical amendments redesignating
    subsec. (g) relating to penalty for money laundering conspiracies
    as (h).
      1992 - Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1531(a), substituted
    "transportation, transmission, or transfer." for "transportation"
    wherever appearing in subpar. (B) and concluding provisions.
      Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1531(b), in concluding
    provisions, substituted "property represented to be the proceeds"
    for "property represented by a law enforcement officer to be the
    proceeds".
      Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1531(a), substituted
    "transportation, transmission, or transfer." for "transportation"
    in introductory provisions.
      Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1527(a)(2), inserted "use
    of a safe deposit box," before "or any other payment".
      Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1527(a)(1), added clause
    (iii), struck out "which in any way or degree affects interstate or
    foreign commerce," after "or aircraft," and inserted "which in any
    way or degree affects interstate or foreign commerce" after "(A) or
    transaction".
      Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1526(a), substituted "or
    the regulations" for "and the regulations".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(B). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1536, designated part of
    existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cls. (ii) and (iii).
      Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 102-550, Secs. 1524, 1534(1), (2),
    struck out "1341 (relating to mail fraud) or section 1343 (relating
    to wire fraud) affecting a financial institution, section 1344
    (relating to bank fraud)," after "hostage taking),", inserted
    "section 1708 (theft from the mail)," before "section 2113",
    substituted "section 422 of the Controlled Substances Act" for
    "section 1822 of the Mail Order Drug Paraphernalia Control Act (100
    Stat. 3207-51; 21 U.S.C. 857)", and struck out "or" before "section
    16".
      Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1534(3), which directed insertion of ", any
    felony violation of section 9(c) of the Food Stamp Act of 1977
    (relating to food stamp fraud) involving a quantity of coupons
    having a value of not less than $5,000, or any felony violation of
    the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act" before semicolon, was executed
    by making insertion before semicolon at end to reflect the probable
    intent of Congress.
      Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1530, added subsec. (g)
    relating to penalty for money laundering conspiracies.
      Pub. L. 102-550, Sec. 1504(c), added subsec. (g) relating to
    notice of conviction of financial institutions.
      1990 - Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 108(1), inserted at
    end "For the purpose of the offense described in subparagraph (B),
    the defendant's knowledge may be established by proof that a law
    enforcement officer represented the matter specified in
    subparagraph (B) as true, and the defendant's subsequent statements
    or actions indicate that the defendant believed such
    representations to be true."
      Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 108(2), inserted "and
    paragraph (2)" after "this paragraph" in last sentence.
      Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 106, substituted "State,
    Federal, or foreign" for "State or Federal".
      Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 1402, inserted "(A)" before
    "a transaction" the first place it appears, "(B)" before "a
    transaction" the second place it appears, "(i)" before "involving"
    the first place it appears, and "(ii)" before "involving" the
    second place it appears.
      Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 105, amended par. (5)
    generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: "the term
    'monetary instruments' means coin or currency of the United States
    or of any other country, travelers" checks, personal checks, bank
    checks, money orders, investment securities in bearer form or
    otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery, and
    negotiable instruments in bearer form or otherwise in such form
    that title thereto passes upon delivery;".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(A). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 3557(1), substituted
    "subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31" for "the Currency and
    Foreign Transactions Reporting Act".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(C). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 1404(a)(1), struck out
    "or" at end.
      Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 3557(2)(A)-(D),
    substituted "section 2113" for "or section 2113", substituted
    "theft), or" for "theft) of this title,", inserted "of this title"
    after "2319 (relating to copyright infringement)", and substituted
    "paraphernalia" for "paraphenalia".
      Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 3557(2)(E), which directed the amendment of
    subpar. (D) by striking the final period, was repealed by Pub. L.
    103-322, Sec. 330011(l), and Pub. L. 103-325, Sec. 413(d).
      Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 2506(2), inserted "section 1341 (relating
    to mail fraud) or section 1343 (relating to wire fraud) affecting a
    financial institution," after "section 1203 (relating to hostage
    taking),".
      Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 2506(1), inserted "section 1005 (relating
    to fraudulent bank entries), 1006 (relating to fraudulent Federal
    credit institution entries), 1007 (relating to Federal Deposit
    Insurance transactions), 1014 (relating to fraudulent loan or
    credit applications), 1032 (relating to concealment of assets from
    conservator, receiver, or liquidating agent of financial
    institution)," after "section 875 (relating to interstate
    communications),".
      Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 1404(a)(2), inserted "; or" after "Trading
    with the Enemy Act" at end.
      Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 107, substituted "a felony violation of the
    Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988" for "section 310 of
    the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 830)".
      Subsec. (c)(7)(E). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 1404(a)(2), amended par.
    (7) by inserting "; or" and subpar. (E) before the period.
      Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 1205(j), added par. (8).
      Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 1404(b), inserted at end
    "Violations of this section involving offenses described in
    paragraph (c)(7)(E) may be investigated by such components of the
    Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and the
    National Enforcement Investigations Center of the Evironmental
    [sic] Protection Agency."
      1988 - Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 6471(a), amended
    subpar. (A) generally, designating existing provisions as cl. (i)
    and adding cl. (ii).
      Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 6471(b), substituted
    "transports, transmits, or transfers, or attempts to transport,
    transmit, or transfer" for "transports or attempts to transport" in
    introductory provisions.
      Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 6465, added par. (3).
      Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7031, substituted
    "section 513" for "section 511" and "section 545" for "section 543"
    and inserted "section 657 (relating to lending, credit, and
    insurance institutions), section 658 (relating to property
    mortgaged or pledged to farm credit agencies),".
      Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 6466, inserted "section 542 (relating to
    entry of goods by means of false statements),", "section 549
    (relating to removing goods from Customs custody),", and "section
    2319 (relating to copyright infringement), section 310 of the
    Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 830) (relating to precursor
    and essential chemicals), section 590 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19
    U.S.C. 1590) (relating to aviation smuggling), section 1822 of the
    Mail Order Drug Paraphernalia Control Act (100 Stat. 3207-51; 21
    U.S.C. 857) (relating to transportation of drug paraphenalia
    [sic]),".
      Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 6183, substituted "section 38(c) (relating
    to criminal violations) of the Arms Export Control Act, section 11
    (relating to violations) of the Export Administration Act of 1979,
    section 206 (relating to penalties) of the International Emergency
    Economic Powers Act, or section 16 (relating to offenses and
    punishment) of the Trading with the Enemy Act." for "section 38 of
    the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778), section 2 (relating
    to criminal penalties) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50
    U.S.C. App. 2401), section 203 (relating to criminal sanctions) of
    the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1702),
    or section 3 (relating to criminal violations) of the Trading with
    the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 3)".
      Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 6469(a)(1), substituted "and,
    with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal
    Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of
    the Secretary of the Treasury and the Postal Service shall be
    exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered
    into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Postal Service, and the
    Attorney General." for ". Such authority of the Secretary of the
    Treasury shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which
    shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury and the
    Attorney General."
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2008 AMENDMENT
      Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110-234 by Pub.
    L. 110-246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L.
    110-234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110-
    246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title
    7, Agriculture.
      Amendment by sections 4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(M), and
    4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii) of Pub. L. 110-246 effective Oct. 1,
    2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110-246, set out as a note under
    section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT
      Pub. L. 107-273, div. B, title IV, Sec. 4002(a)(11), Nov. 2,
    2002, 116 Stat. 1807, provided that the amendment made by section
    4002(a)(11) is effective Apr. 24, 1996.
      Pub. L. 107-273, div. B, title IV, Sec. 4005(e), Nov. 2, 2002,
    116 Stat. 1813, provided that the amendment made by section 4005(e)
    is effective Oct. 26, 2001.
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by section 604(b)(38) of Pub. L. 104-294 effective
    Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104-294, set out as a
    note under section 13 of this title.
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENTS
      Section 330011(l) of Pub. L. 103-322 and section 413(d) of Pub.
    L. 103-325 provided that the repeal of section 3557(2)(E) of Pub.
    L. 101-647 made by those sections is effective as of the date of
    enactment of Pub. L. 101-647, which was approved Nov. 29, 1990.

FOOTNOTE

    (!1) So in original. The second closing parenthesis probably
         should not appear.
    (!2) So in original. Probably should be preceded by "section".
    (!3) So in original. Probably should be followed by a semicolon.
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