TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 95 - RACKETEERING
Sec. 1952. Interstate and foreign travel or transportation in aid
of racketeering enterprises
(a) Whoever travels in interstate or foreign commerce or uses the
mail or any facility in interstate or foreign commerce, with intent
(1) distribute the proceeds of any unlawful activity; or
(2) commit any crime of violence to further any unlawful
(3) otherwise promote, manage, establish, carry on, or
facilitate the promotion, management, establishment, or carrying
on, of any unlawful activity,
and thereafter performs or attempts to perform -
(A) an act described in paragraph (1) or (3) shall be fined
under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both; or
(B) an act described in paragraph (2) shall be fined under this
title, imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or both, and if
death results shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for
(b) As used in this section (i) "unlawful activity" means (1) any
business enterprise involving gambling, liquor on which the Federal
excise tax has not been paid, narcotics or controlled substances
(as defined in section 102(6) of the Controlled Substances Act), or
prostitution offenses in violation of the laws of the State in
which they are committed or of the United States, (2) extortion,
bribery, or arson in violation of the laws of the State in which
committed or of the United States, or (3) any act which is
indictable under subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31, United
States Code, or under section 1956 or 1957 of this title and (ii)
the term "State" includes a State of the United States, the
District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or
possession of the United States.
(c) Investigations of violations under this section involving
liquor shall be conducted under the supervision of the Attorney
(Added Pub. L. 87-228, Sec. 1(a), Sept. 13, 1961, 75 Stat. 498;
amended Pub. L. 89-68, July 7, 1965, 79 Stat. 212; Pub. L. 91-513,
title II, Sec. 701(i)(2), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1282; Pub. L. 99-
570, title I, Sec. 1365(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-35; Pub.
L. 101-647, title XII, Sec. 1205(i), title XVI, Sec. 1604, Nov. 29,
1990, 104 Stat. 4831, 4843; Pub. L. 103-322, title XIV, Sec.
140007(a), title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108
Stat. 2033, 2147; Pub. L. 107-296, title XI, Sec. 1112(h), Nov. 25,
2002, 116 Stat. 2277.)
REFERENCES IN TEXT
Section 102(6) of the Controlled Substances Act, referred to in
subsec. (b)(i)(1), is classified to section 802(6) of Title 21,
Food and Drugs.
2002 - Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107-296 substituted "Attorney
General" for "Secretary of the Treasury".
1994 - Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(L), which directed the
amendment of this section by substituting "under this title" for
"not more than $10,000", could not be executed because the phrase
"not more than $10,000" did not appear in text subsequent to
amendment of subsec. (a) by Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 140007(a). See
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 140007(a), substituted "and
thereafter performs or attempts to perform - " and subpars. (A) and
(B) for former concluding provisions which read as follows: "and
thereafter performs or attempts to perform any of the acts
specified in subparagraphs (1), (2), and (3), shall be fined not
more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or
1990 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 1604, inserted "the
mail or" after "uses" and struck out "including the mail," before
"with intent" in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101-647, Sec. 1205(i), inserted "(i)" after
"As used in this section" and added cl. (ii).
1986 - Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99-570 added cl. (3).
1970 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91-513, Sec. 701(i)(2)(A),
inserted "or controlled substances (as defined in section 102(6) of
the Controlled Substances Act)".
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91-513, Sec. 701(i)(2)(B), struck out
reference to investigations involving narcotics.
1965 - Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 89-68 made section applicable to
travel in aid of arson.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT
Amendment by Pub. L. 107-296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25,
2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107-296, set out as an Effective
Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1970 AMENDMENT
Amendment by Pub. L. 91-513 effective on first day of seventh
calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of
Pub. L. 91-513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801
of Title 21, Food and Drugs.
Amendment by Pub. L. 91-513 not to affect or abate any
prosecutions for any violation of law or any civil seizures or
forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the
effective date of such amendment, and all administrative
proceedings pending before the former Bureau of Narcotics and
Dangerous Drugs on Oct. 27, 1970, were to be continued and brought
to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in
effect prior to Oct. 27, 1970, see section 702 of Pub. L. 91-513,
set out as a Savings Provision note under section 321 of Title 21,
Food and Drugs.
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