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CITE

    18 USC Sec. 1581                                            01/05/2009

EXPCITE

    TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
    PART I - CRIMES
    CHAPTER 77 - PEONAGE, SLAVERY, AND TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

HEAD

    Sec. 1581. Peonage; obstructing enforcement

STATUTE

      (a) Whoever holds or returns any person to a condition of
    peonage, or arrests any person with the intent of placing him in or
    returning him to a condition of peonage, shall be fined under this
    title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both. If death
    results from the violation of this section, or if the violation
    includes kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual
    abuse or the attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an
    attempt to kill, the defendant shall be fined under this title or
    imprisoned for any term of years or life, or both.
      (b) Whoever obstructs, or attempts to obstruct, or in any way
    interferes with or prevents the enforcement of this section, shall
    be liable to the penalties prescribed in subsection (a).

SOURCE

    (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 772; Pub. L. 103-322, title
    XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L.
    104-208, div. C, title II, Sec. 218(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat.
    3009-573; Pub. L. 106-386, div. A, Sec. 112(a)(1), Oct. 28, 2000,
    114 Stat. 1486.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

      Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Secs. 444, 445 (Mar. 4,
    1909, ch. 321, Secs. 269, 270, 35 Stat. 1142).
      Section consolidates sections 444 and 445 of said title 18,
    U.S.C., 1940 ed., with changes in phraseology to amplify and
    clarify their provisions.
      Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as
    unnecessary in view of definition of "principal" in section 2 of
    this title.
                                AMENDMENTS
      2000 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106-386 substituted "20 years" for
    "10 years" and inserted at end "If death results from the violation
    of this section, or if the violation includes kidnapping or an
    attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or the attempt to commit
    aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, the defendant shall
    be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or
    life, or both."
      1996 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104-208 substituted "10 years" for
    "five years".
      1994 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-322 substituted "fined under this
    title" for "fined not more than $5,000".
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT
      Section 218(d) of div. C of Pub. L. 104-208 provided that: "This
    section [amending this section and sections 1583, 1584, and 1588 of
    this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section
    994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] and the
    amendments made by this section shall apply with respect to
    offenses occurring on or after the date of the enactment of this
    Act [Sept. 30, 1996]."
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