All Agencies, Latest Month All Agencies, Current FY Geographic Distribution
of Convictions for
All Agencies, FY 2014
59 Prosecutions
in April 2014
740 Prosecutions
in Fiscal Year 2014
58 Convictions
in April 2014
665 Convictions
in Fiscal Year 2014

CITE

    18 USC Sec. 1028                                            01/05/2009

EXPCITE

    TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
    PART I - CRIMES
    CHAPTER 47 - FRAUD AND FALSE STATEMENTS

HEAD

    Sec. 1028. Fraud and related activity in connection with
      identification documents, authentication features, and
      information

STATUTE

      (a) Whoever, in a circumstance described in subsection (c) of
    this section -
        (1) knowingly and without lawful authority produces an
      identification document, authentication feature, or a false
      identification document;
        (2) knowingly transfers an identification document,
      authentication feature, or a false identification document
      knowing that such document or feature was stolen or produced
      without lawful authority;
        (3) knowingly possesses with intent to use unlawfully or
      transfer unlawfully five or more identification documents (other
      than those issued lawfully for the use of the possessor),
      authentication features, or false identification documents;
        (4) knowingly possesses an identification document (other than
      one issued lawfully for the use of the possessor), authentication
      feature, or a false identification document, with the intent such
      document or feature be used to defraud the United States;
        (5) knowingly produces, transfers, or possesses a document-
      making implement or authentication feature with the intent such
      document-making implement or authentication feature will be used
      in the production of a false identification document or another
      document-making implement or authentication feature which will be
      so used;
        (6) knowingly possesses an identification document or
      authentication feature that is or appears to be an identification
      document or authentication feature of the United States or a
      sponsoring entity of an event designated as a special event of
      national significance which is stolen or produced without lawful
      authority knowing that such document or feature was stolen or
      produced without such authority;
        (7) knowingly transfers, possesses, or uses, without lawful
      authority, a means of identification of another person with the
      intent to commit, or to aid or abet, or in connection with, any
      unlawful activity that constitutes a violation of Federal law, or
      that constitutes a felony under any applicable State or local
      law; or
        (8) knowingly traffics in false or actual authentication
      features for use in false identification documents, document-
      making implements, or means of identification;
    shall be punished as provided in subsection (b) of this section.
      (b) The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) of this
    section is -
        (1) except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4), a fine under
      this title or imprisonment for not more than 15 years, or both,
      if the offense is -
          (A) the production or transfer of an identification document,
        authentication feature, or false identification document that
        is or appears to be -
            (i) an identification document or authentication feature
          issued by or under the authority of the United States; or
            (ii) a birth certificate, or a driver's license or personal
          identification card;
          (B) the production or transfer of more than five
        identification documents, authentication features, or false
        identification documents;
          (C) an offense under paragraph (5) of such subsection; or
          (D) an offense under paragraph (7) of such subsection that
        involves the transfer, possession, or use of 1 or more means of
        identification if, as a result of the offense, any individual
        committing the offense obtains anything of value aggregating
        $1,000 or more during any 1-year period;
        (2) except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4), a fine under
      this title or imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, if
      the offense is -
          (A) any other production, transfer, or use of a means of
        identification, an identification document,,(!1) authentication
        feature, or a false identification document; or
          (B) an offense under paragraph (3) or (7) of such subsection;
        (3) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than
      20 years, or both, if the offense is committed -
          (A) to facilitate a drug trafficking crime (as defined in
        section 929(a)(2));
          (B) in connection with a crime of violence (as defined in
        section 924(c)(3)); or
          (C) after a prior conviction under this section becomes
        final;
        (4) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than
      30 years, or both, if the offense is committed to facilitate an
      act of domestic terrorism (as defined under section 2331(5) of
      this title) or an act of international terrorism (as defined in
      section 2331(1) of this title);
        (5) in the case of any offense under subsection (a), forfeiture
      to the United States of any personal property used or intended to
      be used to commit the offense; and
        (6) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than
      one year, or both, in any other case.
      (c) The circumstance referred to in subsection (a) of this
    section is that -
        (1) the identification document, authentication feature, or
      false identification document is or appears to be issued by or
      under the authority of the United States or a sponsoring entity
      of an event designated as a special event of national
      significance or the document-making implement is designed or
      suited for making such an identification document, authentication
      feature, or false identification document;
        (2) the offense is an offense under subsection (a)(4) of this
      section; or
        (3) either -
          (A) the production, transfer, possession, or use prohibited
        by this section is in or affects interstate or foreign
        commerce, including the transfer of a document by electronic
        means; or
          (B) the means of identification, identification document,
        false identification document, or document-making implement is
        transported in the mail in the course of the production,
        transfer, possession, or use prohibited by this section.
      (d) In this section and section 1028A -
        (1) the term "authentication feature" means any hologram,
      watermark, certification, symbol, code, image, sequence of
      numbers or letters, or other feature that either individually or
      in combination with another feature is used by the issuing
      authority on an identification document, document-making
      implement, or means of identification to determine if the
      document is counterfeit, altered, or otherwise falsified;
        (2) the term "document-making implement" means any implement,
      impression, template, computer file, computer disc, electronic
      device, or computer hardware or software, that is specifically
      configured or primarily used for making an identification
      document, a false identification document, or another document-
      making implement;
        (3) the term "identification document" means a document made or
      issued by or under the authority of the United States Government,
      a State, political subdivision of a State, a sponsoring entity of
      an event designated as a special event of national significance,
      a foreign government, political subdivision of a foreign
      government, an international governmental or an international
      quasi-governmental organization which, when completed with
      information concerning a particular individual, is of a type
      intended or commonly accepted for the purpose of identification
      of individuals;
        (4) the term "false identification document" means a document
      of a type intended or commonly accepted for the purposes of
      identification of individuals that -
          (A) is not issued by or under the authority of a governmental
        entity or was issued under the authority of a governmental
        entity but was subsequently altered for purposes of deceit; and
          (B) appears to be issued by or under the authority of the
        United States Government, a State, a political subdivision of a
        State, a sponsoring entity of an event designated by the
        President as a special event of national significance, a
        foreign government, a political subdivision of a foreign
        government, or an international governmental or quasi-
        governmental organization;
        (5) the term "false authentication feature" means an
      authentication feature that -
          (A) is genuine in origin, but, without the authorization of
        the issuing authority, has been tampered with or altered for
        purposes of deceit;
          (B) is genuine, but has been distributed, or is intended for
        distribution, without the authorization of the issuing
        authority and not in connection with a lawfully made
        identification document, document-making implement, or means of
        identification to which such authentication feature is intended
        to be affixed or embedded by the respective issuing authority;
        or
          (C) appears to be genuine, but is not;
        (6) the term "issuing authority" -
          (A) means any governmental entity or agency that is
        authorized to issue identification documents, means of
        identification, or authentication features; and
          (B) includes the United States Government, a State, a
        political subdivision of a State, a sponsoring entity of an
        event designated by the President as a special event of
        national significance, a foreign government, a political
        subdivision of a foreign government, or an international
        government or quasi-governmental organization;
        (7) the term "means of identification" means any name or number
      that may be used, alone or in conjunction with any other
      information, to identify a specific individual, including any -
          (A) name, social security number, date of birth, official
        State or government issued driver's license or identification
        number, alien registration number, government passport number,
        employer or taxpayer identification number;
          (B) unique biometric data, such as fingerprint, voice print,
        retina or iris image, or other unique physical representation;
          (C) unique electronic identification number, address, or
        routing code; or
          (D) telecommunication identifying information or access
        device (as defined in section 1029(e));
        (8) the term "personal identification card" means an
      identification document issued by a State or local government
      solely for the purpose of identification;
        (9) the term "produce" includes alter, authenticate, or
      assemble;
        (10) the term "transfer" includes selecting an identification
      document, false identification document, or document-making
      implement and placing or directing the placement of such
      identification document, false identification document, or
      document-making implement on an online location where it is
      available to others;
        (11) the term "State" includes any State of the United States,
      the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and
      any other commonwealth, possession, or territory of the United
      States; and
        (12) the term "traffic" means -
          (A) to transport, transfer, or otherwise dispose of, to
        another, as consideration for anything of value; or
          (B) to make or obtain control of with intent to so transport,
        transfer, or otherwise dispose of.
      (e) This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized
    investigative, protective, or intelligence activity of a law
    enforcement agency of the United States, a State, or a political
    subdivision of a State, or of an intelligence agency of the United
    States, or any activity authorized under chapter 224 of this title.
      (f) Attempt and Conspiracy. - Any person who attempts or
    conspires to commit any offense under this section shall be subject
    to the same penalties as those prescribed for the offense, the
    commission of which was the object of the attempt or conspiracy.
      (g) Forfeiture Procedures. - The forfeiture of property under
    this section, including any seizure and disposition of the property
    and any related judicial or administrative proceeding, shall be
    governed by the provisions of section 413 (other than subsection
    (d) of that section) of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and
    Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 853).
      (h) Forfeiture; Disposition. - In the circumstance in which any
    person is convicted of a violation of subsection (a), the court
    shall order, in addition to the penalty prescribed, the forfeiture
    and destruction or other disposition of all illicit authentication
    features, identification documents, document-making implements, or
    means of identification.
      (i) Rule of Construction. - For purpose of subsection (a)(7), a
    single identification document or false identification document
    that contains 1 or more means of identification shall be construed
    to be 1 means of identification.

SOURCE

    (Added Pub. L. 97-398, Sec. 2, Dec. 31, 1982, 96 Stat. 2009;
    amended Pub. L. 99-646, Sec. 44(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3601;
    Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, Sec. 7023, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat.
    4397; Pub. L. 101-647, title XII, Sec. 1205(e), Nov. 29, 1990, 104
    Stat. 4831; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(K), (M),
    (O), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147, 2148; Pub. L. 104-208, div. C,
    title II, Sec. 211(a)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-569; Pub.
    L. 104-294, title VI, Sec. 601(a)(3), (p), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat.
    3498, 3502; Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(a)-(h)(1), Oct. 30, 1998, 112
    Stat. 3007-3009; Pub. L. 106-578, Sec. 3, Dec. 28, 2000, 114 Stat.
    3076; Pub. L. 108-21, title VI, Sec. 607(b), Apr. 30, 2003, 117
    Stat. 689; Pub. L. 108-275, Secs. 2(c), 3, July 15, 2004, 118 Stat.
    832; Pub. L. 108-458, title VII, Sec. 7216, Dec. 17, 2004, 118
    Stat. 3833; Pub. L. 109-13, div. B, title II, Sec. 203(a), May 11,
    2005, 119 Stat. 315; Pub. L. 109-177, title VI, Sec. 603, Mar. 9,
    2006, 120 Stat. 253.)

AMENDMENTS

      2006 - Subsecs. (a)(6), (c)(1). Pub. L. 109-177, Sec. 603(1),
    (2), inserted "or a sponsoring entity of an event designated as a
    special event of national significance" after "United States".
      Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 109-177, Sec. 603(3), inserted "a
    sponsoring entity of an event designated as a special event of
    national significance," after "political subdivision of a State,".
      Subsec. (d)(4)(B), (6)(B). Pub. L. 109-177, Sec. 603(4), inserted
    "a sponsoring entity of an event designated by the President as a
    special event of national significance," after "political
    subdivision of a State,".
      2005 - Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 109-13 substituted "false or
    actual authentication features" for "false authentication
    features".
      2004 - Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 108-275, Sec. 3(1), substituted
    "transfers, possesses," for "transfers" and "abet, or in connection
    with," for "abet,".
      Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 108-275, Sec. 3(2), substituted
    "transfer, possession," for "transfer".
      Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108-275, Sec. 3(3), substituted "5 years"
    for "three years" in introductory provisions.
      Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 108-458 substituted "30 years" for "25
    years".
      Pub. L. 108-275, Sec. 3(4), inserted "an act of domestic
    terrorism (as defined under section 2331(5) of this title) or"
    after "facilitate".
      Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108-275, Sec. 2(c), inserted "and section
    1028A" after "In this section" in introductory provisions.
      2003 - Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(6), inserted ", authentication
    features," after "documents" in section catchline.
      Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(1)(A), inserted ",
    authentication feature," after "an identification document".
      Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(1)(B), inserted ",
    authentication feature," after "an identification document" and "or
    feature" after "such document".
      Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(1)(C), inserted ",
    authentication features," after "possessor)".
      Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(1)(D), inserted ",
    authentication feature," after "possessor)" and "or feature" after
    "such document".
      Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(1)(E), inserted "or
    authentication feature" after "implement" wherever appearing.
      Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(1)(F), inserted "or
    authentication feature" before "that is or appears", "or
    authentication feature" before "of the United States" and "or
    feature" after "such document" and struck out "or" at end.
      Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(1)(G), inserted "or"
    after semicolon at end.
      Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(1)(H), added par.
    (8).
      Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(2)(A)(i)(I),
    inserted ", authentication feature," before "or false" in
    introductory provisions.
      Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(2)(A)(i)(II),
    inserted "or authentication feature" after "document".
      Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(2)(A)(ii),
    inserted ", authentication features," before "or false".
      Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(2)(B), inserted ",
    authentication feature," before "or a false".
      Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(3), inserted ",
    authentication feature," before "or false" in two places.
      Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(4), added pars. (1),
    (5), (6) and (12), redesignated former pars. (1), (2), (3), (4),
    (5), (6), (7), and (8) as pars. (2), (3), (4), (7), (8), (9), (10),
    and (11), respectively, and in par. (4)(A) inserted "or was issued
    under the authority of a governmental entity but was subsequently
    altered for purposes of deceit" after "entity".
      Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 108-21, Sec. 607(b)(5), added subsec.
    (h) and redesignated former subsec. (h) as (i).
      2000 - Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 106-578, Sec. 3(1), inserted ",
    including the transfer of a document by electronic means" after
    "commerce".
      Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106-578, Sec. 3(2)(A), inserted
    "template, computer file, computer disc," after "impression,".
      Subsec. (d)(3) to (8). Pub. L. 106-578, Sec. 3(2)(B)-(F), added
    pars. (3) and (7) and redesignated former pars. (3), (4), (5), and
    (6) as (4), (5), (6), and (8), respectively.
      1998 - Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(h)(1), inserted "and information"
    at end of section catchline.
      Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(a)(3), struck out "or
    attempts to do so," before "shall be punished" in concluding
    provisions.
      Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(a)(1), (2), (4), added
    par. (7).
      Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(b)(1), added subpar.
    (D).
      Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(b)(2)(A), substituted
    ", transfer, or use of a means of identification, an identification
    document, or a" for "or transfer of an identification document or".
      Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(b)(2)(B), inserted "or
    (7)" after "(3)".
      Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(b)(3), amended par. (3)
    generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "a fine
    under this title or imprisonment for not more than 20 years, or
    both, if the offense is committed to facilitate a drug trafficking
    crime (as defined in section 929(a)(2) of this title);".
      Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(b)(4)-(6), added
    par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6).
      Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(c), added par. (3) and
    struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "the production,
    transfer, or possession prohibited by this section is in or affects
    interstate or foreign commerce, or the identification document,
    false identification document, or document-making implement is
    transported in the mail in the course of the production, transfer,
    or possession prohibited by this section."
      Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(d), amended subsec. (d)
    generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) consisted of pars. (1)
    to (5) defining "identification document", "produce", "document-
    making implement", "personal identification card", and "State" as
    used in this section.
      Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(e), added subsec. (f).
      Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(f), added subsec. (g).
      Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 3(g), added subsec. (h).
      1996 - Subsec. (a)(4), (5). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 601(p), struck
    out "or" after semicolon in par. (4) and inserted "or" after
    semicolon in par. (5).
      Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 601(a)(3), substituted "fine
    under this title" for "fine of under this title" wherever
    appearing.
      Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104-208, Sec. 211(a)(1)(A), in
    introductory provisions inserted "except as provided in paragraphs
    (3) and (4)," after "(1)" and substituted "15 years" for "five
    years".
      Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104-208, Sec. 211(a)(1)(B), inserted
    "except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4)," after "(2)" in
    introductory provisions and struck out "and" at end.
      Subsec. (b)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 104-208, Sec. 211(a)(1)(C), (D),
    added pars. (3) and (4) and redesignated former par. (3) as (5).
      1994 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(O),
    substituted "under this title" for "not more than $25,000".
      Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(M), substituted
    "under this title" for "not more than $15,000".
      Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(K), substituted
    "under this title" for "not more than $5,000".
      1990 - Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 101-647 inserted "commonwealth,"
    before "possession or territory of the United States".
      1988 - Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 100-690 inserted "knowingly"
    before "possesses", "lawful" before first reference to "authority",
    and "such" before second reference to "authority".
      1986 - Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99-646 substituted "chapter 224 of
    this title" for "title V of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970
    (18 U.S.C. note prec. 3481)".
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2000 AMENDMENT
      Pub. L. 106-578, Sec. 5, Dec. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 3077, provided
    that: "This Act [amending this section, repealing section 1738 of
    this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note below] and
    the amendments made by this Act shall take effect 90 days after the
    date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 2000]."
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT
      Section 211(c) of div. C of Pub. L. 104-208 provided that: "This
    section [amending this section and sections 1425 to 1427, 1541 to
    1544, and 1546 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a
    note under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial
    Procedure] and the amendments made by this section shall apply with
    respect to offenses occurring on or after the date of the enactment
    of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996]."
              COORDINATING COMMITTEE ON FALSE IDENTIFICATION
      Pub. L. 106-578, Sec. 2, Dec. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 3075, provided
    that:
      "(a) In General. - The Attorney General and the Secretary of the
    Treasury shall establish a coordinating committee to ensure,
    through existing interagency task forces or other means, that the
    creation and distribution of false identification documents (as
    defined in section 1028(d)(3) [now 1028(d)(4)] of title 18, United
    States Code, as added by section 3(2) of this Act) is vigorously
    investigated and prosecuted.
      "(b) Membership. - The coordinating committee shall consist of
    the Director of the United States Secret Service, the Director of
    the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Attorney General, the
    Commissioner of Social Security, and the Commissioner of
    Immigration and Naturalization, or their respective designees.
      "(c) Term. - The coordinating committee shall terminate 2 years
    after the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 2000
    Amendment note above].
      "(d) Report. -
        "(1) In general. - The Attorney General and the Secretary of
      the Treasury, at the end of each year of the existence of the
      committee, shall report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the
      Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of
      Representatives on the activities of the committee.
        "(2) Contents. - The report referred to in paragraph (1) shall
      include -
          "(A) the total number of indictments and informations, guilty
        pleas, convictions, and acquittals resulting from the
        investigation and prosecution of the creation and distribution
        of false identification documents during the preceding year;
          "(B) identification of the Federal judicial districts in
        which the indictments and informations were filed, and in which
        the subsequent guilty pleas, convictions, and acquittals
        occurred;
          "(C) specification of the Federal statutes utilized for
        prosecution;
          "(D) a brief factual description of significant
        investigations and prosecutions;
          "(E) specification of the sentence imposed as a result of
        each guilty plea and conviction; and
          "(F) recommendations, if any, for legislative changes that
        could facilitate more effective investigation and prosecution
        of the creation and distribution of false identification
        documents."
      [For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and
    obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the
    functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the
    Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related
    references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6,
    Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security
    Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a
    note under section 542 of Title 6.]
      [For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service,
    transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see
    note set out under section 1551 of Title 8, Aliens and
    Nationality.]
                         CONSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY
      Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 2, Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3007, provided
    that: "The constitutional authority upon which this Act [see Short
    Title of 1998 Amendments note set out under section 1001 of this
    title] rests is the power of Congress to regulate commerce with
    foreign nations and among the several States, and the authority to
    make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into
    execution the powers vested by the Constitution in the Government
    of the United States or in any department or officer thereof, as
    set forth in article I, section 8 of the United States
    Constitution."
    CENTRALIZED COMPLAINT AND CONSUMER EDUCATION SERVICE FOR VICTIMS OF
                              IDENTITY THEFT
      Pub. L. 105-318, Sec. 5, Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3010, provided
    that:
      "(a) In General. - Not later than 1 year after the date of
    enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 1998], the Federal Trade Commission
    shall establish procedures to -
        "(1) log and acknowledge the receipt of complaints by
      individuals who certify that they have a reasonable belief that 1
      or more of their means of identification (as defined in section
      1028 of title 18, United States Code, as amended by this Act)
      have been assumed, stolen, or otherwise unlawfully acquired in
      violation of section 1028 of title 18, United States Code, as
      amended by this Act;
        "(2) provide informational materials to individuals described
      in paragraph (1); and
        "(3) refer complaints described in paragraph (1) to appropriate
      entities, which may include referral to -
          "(A) the 3 major national consumer reporting agencies; and
          "(B) appropriate law enforcement agencies for potential law
        enforcement action.
      "(b) Authorization of Appropriations. - There are authorized to
    be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this
    section."
       FRAUD AND RELATED ACTIVITY IN CONNECTION WITH IDENTIFICATION
                                 DOCUMENTS
      Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 609L, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat.
    2103, provided that:
      "(a) For purposes of section 1028 of title 18, United States
    Code, to the maximum extent feasible, personal descriptors or
    identifiers utilized in identification documents, as defined in
    such section, shall utilize common descriptive terms and formats
    designed to -
        "(1) reduce the redundancy and duplication of identification
      systems by providing information which can be utilized by the
      maximum number of authorities, and
        "(2) facilitate positive identification of bona fide holders of
      identification documents.
      "(b) The President shall, no later than 3 years after the date of
    enactment of this Act [Oct. 12, 1984], and after consultation with
    Federal, State, local, and international issuing authorities, and
    concerned groups make recommnedations [recommendations] to the
    Congress for the enactment of comprehensive legislation on Federal
    identification systems. Such legislation shall -
        "(1) give due consideration to protecting the privacy of
      persons who are the subject of any identification system,
        "(2) recommend appropriate civil and criminal sanctions for the
      misuse or unauthorized disclosure of personal identification
      information, and
        "(3) make recommendations providing for the exchange of
      personal identification information as authorized by Federal or
      State law or Executive order of the President or the chief
      executive officer of any of the several States."

FOOTNOTE

    (!1) So in original.
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