Detainees Leaving ICE Detention from the
Travis City Jail
Austin, Texas

Detainees Deported or Released
Number last 12 months 35
Out of total detained 66
Percent change:
from previous 12 months -66 %
from FY 2005 -85 %
from FY 2000 289 %
Facility ranking on detainees top 77 %

Table 1: Number leaving ICE detention
from this facility

During the most recent 12 month period for which data are available, a total of 35 detainees housed at the Travis City Jail left that facility because they were deported, were released under supervision while their cases were being decided, or left ICE detention for one of a variety of other reasons. The use of this facility for the temporary housing of federal immigration detainees was arranged through an intergovernmental service agreement (IGSA) under which payments by ICE to another governmental agency are made for housing federal detainees. Additional information about the arrangement, including whether a private company may operate the facility for the government, was not available at the time this report was posted.

Those individuals who departed from this facility because they were leaving ICE detention made up 53 percent of the 66 detainees housed at this facility during the last 12 months. This report focuses on the reasons these individuals left ICE detention. Sometimes this report speaks of these individuals as those "exiting" ICE detention, or simply as "exits." The other 47 percent remained in ICE detention but were transferred from the Travis City Jail to other facilities.

This report covers those who left ICE custody. It excludes individuals transferred to other ICE facilities. For more information on this facility, including individuals that were transferred, see additional TRAC reports in this series.

This report series is based upon analyses conducted by the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC) at Syracuse University of 3.4 million government records tracking each individual who passed through an ICE detention facility during the past decade. The most recent 12 month period for which comprehensive data are available is for April 2007 through March 2008. See About the Data.

How This Facility Ranks Nationally

Rankings on the number leaving ICE detention. The Travis City Jail was one of 1,528 facilities that were used to house immigration detainees during the last decade, and one of 654 facilities nationwide that housed ICE detainees during the most recent 12 month period. Of these 654, there were 324 facilities that had at least 10 individuals who were deported or released. Excluding those facilities with fewer than 10 exits, the Travis City Jail last year ranked in the top 77 percent nationwide in the number of individuals leaving ICE detention. This means that 77 percent of the locations contributed the same or a larger numbers of exits, while 23 percent had a smaller number. See Table 1.

Deportations. Nationally, the most common reason that a detainee left ICE detention was that they were deported from the United States. During the most recent 12 month period for which comprehensive data are available, nationwide 81 percent of those leaving ICE detention were deported or "voluntarily" departed. By way of comparison, a higher percentage of detainees (100 percent) left the country from the Travis City Jail because they were formally deported, or left under the so-called "voluntary departure" procedure.

Trends in the Number of Detainees Deported or Released

Trends in the number leaving ICE detention. When deportations and other releases during the April 2007-March 2008 period were compared with those in the previous 12 months, the Travis City Jail numbers were sharply down by 66 percent. During the April 2006-March 2007 period the facility processed 102 "exits" as compared with 35 last year. As detailed in Table 1, numbers last year were also down 85 percent as compared with the number of those leaving ICE detention (237) during FY 2005. Exits last year were however up by 289 percent as compared with the number of exits (9) during FY 2000.

Bar chart of fymondt

Figure 1: Month-by-month number of detainees leaving this facility

Longer term exit trends. Greater detail on these long-term trends for those leaving ICE detention from the Travis City Jail are displayed in Figure 1. Here the month-by-month number of exits are graphed against the backdrop of the total detainees leaving the custody of this facility. Exits are displayed with darker shading while those transferred appear with lighter shading. As is readily apparent, considerable variation has occurred over time in both the overall numbers of detainees as well as the volume leaving ICE detention during this period.

Fiscal Year ICE Detainees
Total Exits Percent
1999 15 6 40 %
2000 37 9 24 %
2001 153 11 7 %
2002 344 27 8 %
2003 155 7 5 %
2004 466 254 55 %
2005 411 237 58 %
2006 257 160 62 %
2007 121 68 56 %
2008 (est) 0 0 -

Table 2: Number of detainees leaving
this facility over the last decade

Exit trends are also summarized by fiscal year in Table 2. Year-by-year figures for the Travis City Jail are given for the total number of detainees as compared with those leaving ICE detention from the facility. The percent of detainees that left ICE detention is also given. (As mentioned above, the remaining detainees were transferred to another ICE detention facility.) Because data for all twelve months of the most recent fiscal year are not yet available, the FY 2008 numbers (October 2007 through September 2008) are estimated based upon reporting for the first six months.

Were Detained Individuals from the Local Area?

Information on the place of arrest was not included in the available data ICE released. However, we can examine whether the Travis City Jail was the first ICE facility in which these detainees were held. According to ICE records, for the vast majority (97 percent) of these detainees, the Travis City Jail was the first place they were sent when they were detained by ICE. The remaining 3 percent had been transferred in from another ICE detention facility.

We can also look at how quickly they arrived at this facility after they were first detained. Again, a total of 97 percent arrived at the Travis City Jail at some point during the very first day they were detained by ICE. There was considerable variability among detainees in the number of detention facilities they had been held in before they were finally deported or released from this facility. All detainees either entered and left this one facility, or had spent time at one additional ICE facility before their transfer to the Travis City Jail. These figures again are based on an analysis of the most recent 12 months for which data are available.

For the United States as a whole, last year the typical detainee stayed in two different ICE detention facilities before being deported or released - half stayed in 2 or fewer facilities, and half stayed in 2 or more. The average number of ICE facilities detainees moved through was 1.9. Detainees at the Travis City Jail on average had stayed at somewhat fewer (1.0) ICE facilities.

Reason Left ICE Facility Profile U.S Profile
Number Percent Percent
Deported/Removed 34 97 % 72 %
Voluntary departure 1 3 % 10 %
Bonded out 0 . 8 %
Died 0 . 0 %
Escaped 0 . 0 %
Orders of Recognizance or Supervision 0 . 5 %
Paroled 0 . 0 %
Proceedings Terminated 0 . 2 %
U.S. Marshal or Other Agency 0 . 3 %
Withdrawal 0 . 1 %
Total 35 100 % 100 %

Table 3: Reasons individuals left ICE detention during the last 12 months

Why Did Detainees Leave ICE Detention?

ICE records one of twenty-three reasons a detainee left ICE detention. As shown in Table 3, these reasons fall into ten general categories -- from leaving because one is deported or removed, to leaving because one escaped or the individual died while in custody.

Deportation. As mentioned earlier, the most common reason detainees left the Travis City Jail was that they were deported. A total of 34 individuals (97 percent) were deported or removed from the Travis City Jail during the most recent 12 month period for which data are available. (ICE data did not distinguish between deportations and removals, and the terms are used interchangeably in this report.)

Voluntary departure. Under some circumstances, detainees are allowed to take "voluntary departure." As with deportation, under voluntary departure a person must leave the country. However, unlike formal deportation where the individual is barred by law from reentering this country permanently or for a period of years, under voluntary departure the individual is not legally barred from reentry. One detainee left the Travis City Jail last year as voluntary departures.

Escape and death. Nationally, there were 92 individuals who escaped ICE detention during the latest 12 month period for which data are available, and 8 individuals were recorded as having died in detention. No one was recorded by the Travis City Jail as either escaping or dying last year. Over the past decade, there was also no record of anyone who died or escaped from this facility.

As shown in Table 3, no one was recorded as leaving the Travis City Jail during the past 12 months for the following reasons: Bonded out, Orders of Recognizance or Supervision, Paroled, Proceedings Terminated, U.S. Marshal or other agency and Withdrawal. See "Reasons for Leaving ICE Detention" for a description of these categories.

Pie chart of release_grp

Figure 2: Reasons individuals left ICE detention

Comparing Release Reasons Against The National Picture

In many respects release reasons for the Travis City Jail departed from the national picture. It was the case that a higher proportion left because they were deported from this facility (97 percent) than was true for the U.S. as a whole (72 percent). A lower proportion (3 percent) left this facility as voluntary departures than was true nationally (10 percent).

In addition, differences were seen for individuals released on bond (none versus 8 percent), and detainees released on orders of recognizance or supervision (none versus 5 percent).

The facility's percentages fell within 3 percentage points of the national figures for all other categories.


Which nationalities predominate? Last year in the United States, individuals from Mexico comprised the largest number of those leaving ICE detention. Some 53.6 percent of all detainees recorded Mexico as their country of origin. The Travis City Jail had all detainees from Mexico among their exits. Detainees from Mexico were the only nationality group leaving detention from this facility.

Nationalities Ranked in Top 10 Left ICE Detention
Total Deported/
- ALL 35 35 100.0 %
1 Mexico 35 35 100.0 %

Table 4: Numbers leaving ICE detention by nationality
during the last 12 months

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